Belizean Studies Index

Reference Month Year Article Description Author
src/bzst/1/73/1 January 1973 Editorial: The Purpose of this Journal Richard Buhler, S. J. & Richard Hadel, S. J.
src/bzst/1/73/1 January 1973 Conscientisation Richard Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/1/73/1 January 1973 Anansi Stories and Their Use Folk tales can tell us something about the society that creates and performs them. They can tell us something about what that society holds of value. In this article we try to learn something about Belizean society through an investigation of Anansi stories: where do they come from? And what purpose do they serve? Richard Hadel, S. J.
src/bzst/1/73/1 January 1973 Scripture Commentary: Epiphany Richard Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/1/73/1 January 1973 The Christmas that Went Before Gladys Stuart
src/bzst/1/73/1 January 1973 The Last Fight Leo. H. Bradley
src/bzst/2/73/2 March 1973 Editorial: The Need for Dialogue Richard Buhler, S. J. & Richard Hadel, S. J.
src/bzst/2/73/2 March 1973 Slavery in Belize (Part 1) This is the first in a series of articles on slavery in Belize. The purpose of these articles is not only to inform us about a particular period of our national history but also to help us to understand the cultural heritage of this institution insofar as that heritage persists today. Richard O. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/2/73/2 March 1973 Belize City 133 Years Ago In 1839 Stephens and Catherwood made their famous expedition to Central America. They arrived in Belize City on October 30th of that year. The following description of Belize is taken from the 1841 edition of Incidents of Travel in Central America, Chiapas and Yucatan. by John L. Stephens; the original spellings are retained here.
src/bzst/2/73/2 March 1973 The Lottery One of the prominent features of Belizean economic and social life is the daily and weekly national lottery. To many it is a real part of life’s hopes and aspirations. This article traces the development and some of the sociological implications of the lottery. Leo H. Bradley
src/bzst/2/73/2 March 1973 On Christian Unity On January 25, 1973, an ecumenical service for Christian unity was held in St. John’s Anglican Cathedral. The following is the text of a talk delivered at that service by the Roman Catholic Bishop of Belize. Ministries of the other Christian denominations also participated in the service. Robert L. Hodapp, S. J., Bishop of Belize
src/bzst/2/73/2 March 1973 Glimpses of the Maya Past Gwendolyn Lizarraga
src/bzst/2/73/2 March 1973 Scripture Commentary: The Role of the Prophet Richard O. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/2/73/2 March 1973 The Distribution and Growth of the Secondary School Population in Belize J. Timothy Thompson, S. J.
src/bzst/3/73/3 May 1973 Editorial: Alcoholism in Belize Richard Buhler, S. J. & Richard Hadel, S. J.
src/bzst/3/73/3 May 1973 Carib Ancestral Rites; A Brief Analysis There has been a rebirth of interest in Black Carib ancestral rites. In this article the contribution of the rites to the community is discussed, presenting an argument for their existence. Joseph O. Palacio
src/bzst/3/73/3 May 1973 Slavery in Belize (Part 2) Richard Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/3/73/3 May 1973 The Mennonites of Belize It was only 15 years ago that the Mennonites began to migrate to Belize. As a result, they are a people who are still somewhat mysterious to many Belizeans. This article, written by a Mennonite, tells of the origin, the migrations, and the present settlements of the Mennonites here in Belize. Paul Martin
src/bzst/3/73/3 May 1973 The Cathedral of St. John the Baptist The following is the text of a speech delivered in the Anglican Cathedral of St. John the Baptist to commemorate the 160th anniversary of the oldest Episcopal Cathedral in Spanish America. Gilbert R. Hulse
src/bzst/3/73/3 May 1973 Inquiry Article; What Happened to the Italians in British Honduras? Duane Koenig, Ph.D.
src/bzst/3/73/3 May 1973 Scripture Commentary: Beyond Legalism Richard Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/4/73/4 July 1973 Editorial: Belizean Exodus? Homero Escalante
src/bzst/4/73/4 July 1973 Maya Music and Dance Alfred E. Lemmon
src/bzst/4/73/4 July 1973 Slavery in Belize (Part 3) Richard O. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/4/73/4 July 1973 Socio-Economic Classes in Belize and their Influence on Health Alexandra Coye
src/bzst/4/73/4 July 1973 The Cathedral of St. John the Baptist (Part 2) Gilbert R. Hulse
src/bzst/4/73/4 July 1973 A Conjecture on the Italians Leo H. Bradley
src/bzst/4/73/4 July 1973 Scripture Commentary: Christian Poverty James M. Short, S. J.
src/bzst/5/73/5 September 1973 Editorial: On Becoming Belizean Richard Buhler, S. J. & Richard Hadel, S. J.
src/bzst/5/73/5 September 1973 A Ketchi "Rite of Passage" This paper briefly describes a rite of passage practiced among the Ketchi Indians of the Toledo District in Belize - the a. tuk ritual and compares it with similar rituals found among other Mesoamerican Indians. It is hoped that this will add to the relatively meager ethnological data on the Kekchi as well as to point out the wide distribution of this ritual throughout the Mesoamerican area presently and in Pre-Columbian times. Among the earlier accounts of the Kekchi by K. Sapper (1897) and F. Termer (1951) there is no mention of a ritual such as of their research. It should not be implied that the Kekchi whom they studied did not practice such a rite. Michael E. Howard
src/bzst/5/73/5 September 1973 Scripture Commentary Richard Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/5/73/5 September 1973 Builders of Belize (1) - Benjamin Fairweather This present article is the first in a series on important figures in Belizean history - persons who have left their imprint on the face of Belize. It is taken from the obituary column of a now defunct Belizean newspaper, The Clarion, and is dated 4th February, 1904. The Clarion: February 4th, 1904
src/bzst/5/73/5 September 1973 The Chinese Community of Belize Although the Chinese make up only a tiny fraction of the population of Belize, their presence is very much in evidence, for their names are displayed on the fronts of the stores which they run; Augusto Quan, Robert Chee, Gonzalo Quinto, and others. This article comes to us from a prominent merchant belonging to the Chinese community of Belize. Benito Quan
src/bzst/5/73/5 September 1973 Book Review ("The Theatre of Belize" - Robert A. Johnson) Vernon Leslie
src/bzst/5/73/5 September 1973 Lubaantun Basilio Ah.
src/bzst/6/73/6 November 1973 Editorial: A Modest Proposal
src/bzst/6/73/6 November 1973 Carib Dance and Music There are many varieties of Carib dance. Most of these dances are accompanied by song. Two other Carib dances, tira and chakanari, are accompanied by instrumental music alone. This paper deals only with those dances that are accompanied by song. Richard E. Hadel, S. J.
src/bzst/6/73/6 November 1973 Carib Villages of Belize In addition to Stann Creek Town and Punta Gorda, which are the home towns of the majority of the Caribs of Belize, there are four Carib villages in this country. They are, from north to south: Hopkins, Georgetown, Seine Bight, and Barranco. This article briefly describes each of these villages. Leo. H. Bradley
src/bzst/6/73/6 November 1973 Builders of Belize (2) - Holy Family Sisters This year we celebrate the seventy-fifth anniversary of the arrival of the Sisters of the Holy Family in Stann Creek Town, Belize. They have played an important role in the history of Stann Creek, both the town and the district, and so have played and important role in the history of Belize. Sister Mary of the Rosary
src/bzst/6/73/6 November 1973 Scripture Commentary: A Divided Kingdom Rev. Osmond P. Martin
src/bzst/6/73/6 November 1973 San Luis of San Antonio Many of the great cathedrals of Europe were built by the actual hands of the people who were to worship in them. The Church of San Luis Rey in San Antonio, Toledo District, is a similar case, the stone for it having been carried from the countryside by the village. Alfred Lemmon, S. J.
src/bzst/7/74/1 January 1974 Opinion: The Winds that blow a Change Leo H. Bradley
src/bzst/7/74/1 January 1974 Methodist in Belize Edward A. Laing, Sr.
src/bzst/7/74/1 January 1974 Builders of Belize (3) - Nurse Seay This is the third in a series of articles on Belizeans who have contributed to the growth and character of this country. Few persons are more deserving to be called great Belizeans than Nurse Seay. Richard E. Hadel, S. J.
src/bzst/7/74/1 January 1974 Intestinal Parasites in Belizean Children The following is a condensation of a research dissertation by Sr. Joan Hickey, R. S. M., formerly of St. Catherine’s Academy. The results are not surprising - they show the need for improving our yards and houses - but they give important emphasis to the fact that this improvement is a necessity, not a luxury. As this study is nearly four years old, some of the information in it needs up-dating - for instance, a number of the houses in Lake Independence now have septic tanks. William J. Messmer, S. J.
src/bzst/7/74/1 January 1974 Belizean Art In the following article two of Belize’s foremost sculptors, George Gabb and Frank Lizama, discuss some of their works dealing with religious themes. Photographs of the works accompany the discussion.
src/bzst/7/74/1 January 1974 Lubaantun Revisited In this article a historian of religions discusses some interesting revision of thinking concerning the decline and fall of the Maya Empire. This revision is suggested by recent excavations mad at Lubaantun in the Toledo District. Tennant C. Wright, S. J.
src/bzst/7/74/1 January 1974 Scripture Commentary: Return to our Origins Very Rev. F. J. Castillo
src/bzst/8/74/2 March 1974 A History of Orange Walk The following is an address sponsored by the joint efforts of the Orange Walk Cultural Committee and the Extra-Mural Department of the University of the West Indies. It was delivered in Orange Walk Town. Gilbert R. Hulse
src/bzst/8/74/2 March 1974 Background of the Caste War Richard O. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/8/74/2 March 1974 Some Creole Proverbs and Their Uses Creole has proverbs for every occasion. In this article the author gives examples of proverbs that could be used in a variety of situations. Gladys Stuart
src/bzst/8/74/2 March 1974 Builders of Belize (4) - Bishop Frederick Hopkins, S. J. Henry J. Sutti, S. J.
src/bzst/8/74/2 March 1974 The Telephone System of Belize Now that a direct-dial telephone system has been put into operation throughout Belize, it is interesting to look back and see the steps that led up to this modern system. Hubert W. Smith, M. B. E.
src/bzst/8/74/2 March 1974 Scripture Commentary: Life Through Death Sr. Francine Vasquez, R. S. M.
src/bzst/9/74/3 May 1974 Editorial: Toward a National History Richard Buhler, S. J. & Richard Hadel, S. J.
src/bzst/9/74/3 May 1974 Oral History; The L. and the U. A. Oral history is not history as it is found in documents but as it is passed on by word of mouth. Oral history does not pretend to be unbiased; it gives one person’s view of events. In the following interview with Mr. Antonio Soberanis we hear about the first Belizean nationalist movement from the mouth of its founder and leader.
src/bzst/9/74/3 May 1974 The Future of Belizean Creole, Comment - Colville Young, Ph. D. In the following article and comment thereon two linguists -- one a German, one a Belizean -- discuss the future of the most widely spoken language of Belize. Marlis Hellinger, Ph. D.
src/bzst/9/74/3 May 1974 The Church of St. Mary the Virgin The following was originally delivered as a radio address broadcast over Radio Belize. Sir Harrison Courtenay, K. B. E.
src/bzst/9/74/3 May 1974 An Unusual Pottery Vessel from Cayo District Joseph O. Palacio
src/bzst/9/74/3 May 1974 Scripture Commentary: The Emerging Belizean Woman Sr. Amelia Charpentier, R. S. M.
src/bzst/10/74/4 July 1974 Agriculture Labour Among the Indians of the Toledo District In this article the author discusses how the Mopan and Kekchi Maya have traditionally worked their farms co-operatively. He also shows signs that this system may be changing, and, along with it, other aspects of Maya life. Michael C. Howard
src/bzst/10/74/4 July 1974 Tataduhende and Sissimite Every country of the America’s, it seems, has its legendary forest creatures. Belize is no exception. The following descriptions of Tataduhende and the Sissimite are compiled from the snippets of information gathered from a number of people. Richard E. Hadel, S. J.
src/bzst/10/74/4 July 1974 How to Write Belizean Creole In the following article and comments, three professional students of Belizean Creole discus a possible orthography, or writing system, for the mother tongue of most Belizeans. Marlis Hellinger, Ph. D.
src/bzst/10/74/4 July 1974 Comments Richard E. Hadel, S. J.
src/bzst/10/74/4 July 1974 Scripture Commentary: Creole Prayer
src/bzst/11/74/5 September 1974 Faces and Places of Old Belize The editors of National Studies are proud and pleased to be able to present in this issue a photo album of the Belize that was. The oldest photo in this album, a picture of the Holy Redeemer Cathedral, dates back to 1892; the more recent ones are shots of the aftermath of two disasters that struck Belize in ready succession: the 1931 hurricane and the Hyde’s Lane Fire of 1932.
src/bzst/12/74/6 November 1974 Belize: 2001 A.D.
src/bzst/12/74/6 November 1974 An Economic Factor of the Caste War The Yucatecan refugees from the War of the Castes brought large scale sugar production to Belize. The growth of sugar production in Yucatan was one of the basic causes of the Maya revolt. Richard O. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/12/74/6 November 1974 Maya Discoveries: Flint Tools 'Factory' Excavation is now in progress on Maya ruins discovered in the northern districts. These ruins date to "at least 500 B.C.". The following article is reproduced from The Times (of London) by permission. The Times, July 26, 1973
src/bzst/12/74/6 November 1974 The Caribs (Garifuna) of Central America; A Map of their Realm and a Bibliography of Research William V. Davidson, Ph. D.
src/bzst/12/74/6 November 1974 Words of some Carib Songs On November 19th the Caribs of Belize will celebrate the anniversary of their ancestors’ arrival in this country. On that day they will sing and dance. The words of a few of their songs are presented here. Richard E. Hadel, S. J.
src/bzst/12/74/6 November 1974 Education and Manpower Needs in Belize I. E. Sanchez
src/bzst/12/74/6 November 1974 Scripture Commentary: My Brother's Keeper William Reynolds
src/bzst/13/75 January 1975 Editorial: Year Three
src/bzst/13/75/1 January 1975 Builders of Belize (5): Joseph Scott On November 14, 1974, Joseph Scott died. He had been born 93 years earlier (January 11, 1881) on Spanish Point, a small caye off the coast of Belize, the son of John Williams and Isabella Scott. The following is taken from his autobiography composed two years before his death. We have omitted his account of the first 20 years of his life, much of which was spent in the Republic of Honduras.
src/bzst/13/75/1 January 1975 The Icaiche of Belize During the second half of the 19th century one of the largest and most successful American Indian uprisings, the War of the Castes, occurred in the Yucatan and northern Belize. The rebel Maya almost re-asserted their independence and conquered the entire area. They were able to maintain an autonomous state for fifty years; this state carried on external relations with both the United Sates of Mexico and the United Kingdom. Richard O. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/13/75/1 January 1975 Justice of the Peace For the early British settlers of Belize the position of magistrate was clearly a post of unpaid public service. The justices of the peace have carried on this long tradition of public service. G. Rodwell Hulse
src/bzst/13/75/1 January 1975 The Study of Creole Proverbs The purpose of this paper is to show - by way of discussing a few random examples - what kind of information might be the fruit of such an investigation. Different fields of interest (history, socio-economic, anthropology, etc.) as well as different methods (diachronic vs. synchronic-comparative) will all have to be considered. Merlis Hellinger, Ph. D.
src/bzst/13/75/1 January 1975 Scripture Commentary: Lloyd Lopez
src/bzst/14/75/2 March 1975 Slave Trials in Belize In this brief article are highlighted the contents of several of those court records. In some of them the defendant is a slave; in others the defendant is a free person on trial either for ill-treating slave or, in one instance, for encouraging slaves to run away. Richard E. Hadel, S. J.
src/bzst/14/75/2 March 1975 Pre-Maya Hunters in Belize How long ago did man live in the country that is now Belize? The author of this article has uncovered evidence which, if verified, would answer that question: 20,000 years ago. Dennis E. Puleston
src/bzst/14/75/2 March 1975 Builders of Belize (6): J. M. Rosado History tends to ignore the ‘little people’, partly because there is very little information available about them. Research on Belize’s role in the War of the Castes uncovered the memoirs of one of these new Belizeans. These memoirs were written by J. M. Rosado in 1914. Part of his story is retold here, for he is representative of the many ‘little people’ who sought refuge in our land, made it their own, and helped to build it.
src/bzst/14/75/2 March 1975 Kekchi Religious Beliefs and Lore Regarding the Jungle Maya beliefs were able to survive several centuries of Spanish rule. There are indications, however, that these beliefs may not be able to survive the inroads of modern civilization. This article takes a look at some of the ‘endangered’ beliefs of the Kekchi. Michael C. Howard
src/bzst/15/75/3 May 1975 Editorial: The Social Science in Belize At the 73rd annual convention of the American Anthropological Association held in Mexico City in November of 1974, Mr. Joseph Palacio, the Archaeological Commissioner of Belize, delivered and excellent address which helps to place in perspective the possible contributions of social scientists to Third World Countries. The examples Mr. Palacio uses are all drawn from Belizean society and culture and help us to understand better our own cultural situation. With Mr. Palacio’s permission we are reproducing the following small part of his address. Joseph O. Palacio
src/bzst/15/75/3 May 1975 El Pozito, A Late Classic Site As more and more Maya sites in Belize are excavated, we come to realize how extensive was Maya occupation of this country in ancient times. This article describes a hitherto little know site in the Orange Walk District that was first occupied about 600 B. C. Mary B. Neivens
src/bzst/15/75/3 May 1975 Belizean Folk Remedies For the last several months the teachers at St. Ignatius School in Belize City have been meeting every two weeks to discuss Belizean history and culture. As a part of their meetings, the teachers began colleting information on various aspects of Belizean Culture. They have made lists of old sayings and customs that have gone out of use; they have tape-recorded old people telling stories of the days that have gone by; they have recorded descriptions of games, etc., that our people used to entertain themselves with before the advent of radios, pick-ups, and tap=recorders. One of the very interesting collections of facts about the old Belize is a long list of various bush medicines some of which, because they work well, are still in use today. Richard O. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/15/75/3 May 1975 The Caribs of St. Vincent: A Historical Background and Research Bibliography C. J. M. R. GULLICK
src/bzst/15/75/3 May 1975 Book Review: The Maya of Belize: Historical Chapters since Columbus. Belize City. By J. Eric Thompson Richard O. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/15/75/3 May 1975 Clippings From the Honduras Gazette, 1826 In 1826 Belize got its first newspaper, The Honduras Gazette and Commercial Advertiser, a weekly. Here are some items from that first year of publication. Richard O. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/16/75/4 July 1975 Editorial: Why Juanito Can't Read
src/bzst/16/75/4 July 1975 The Wall Paintings at Santa Rita, Corozal Eighty years ago Dr. Thomas Gann discovered Maya wall paintings at Santa Rita, Corozal District. Now destroyed, these paintings have never been seen by most Belizeans. This article presents Dr. Gann’s copies of the paintings along with a modern scholar’s analysis of them. Jacinto Quirarte, Ph. D.
src/bzst/16/75/4 July 1975 Book Review: Historical Geography of the Bay Islands, Honduras: Anglo-Hispanic Conflict in the Western Caribbean. by William V. Davidson. Leo H. Bradley
src/bzst/16/75/4 July 1975 Male and Female Speech in Carib The Carib language that is spoken in Belize today has certain terms that are properly used only by man and a corresponding number that are used only by women. This is not as rare as one might think; other Northern American Indian languages, such as Koasati (an Indian language of southwestern Louisiana), also distinguish between male and female speech. This paper discusses the origin of male/female speech in Carib and its present trend. Richard E. Hadel, S. J.
src/bzst/17/75/5 September 1975 Fires of Belize During the last 170 years Belize has borne more than its share of destruction by fire. This article is a chronological sketching of the more serious of these. Richard E. Hadel, S. J.
src/bzst/17/75/5 September 1975 The Spirits of the Mountain (Aluxoob) In Maya Mythology Belize is called the "Land of the Gods", Maya gods primarily. Today belief in these gods is changing. In this article the author examines remnants of these beliefs in two Maya communities of Belize: San Antonio, Cayo, and San Victor Corozal. The first section of the article is a digest of the first half of Dr. Samailus’ paper; the remainder is a translation of the second half of his work. Ortwin Smailus
src/bzst/17/75/5 September 1975 Corozal Project 1975 Duncan C. Pring
src/bzst/17/75/5 September 1975 Malta as a Model for Belize Duane Koenig, Ph. D.
src/bzst/18/75/6 November 1975 John Canoe The following paper discusses the origins of John Canoe dancing and describes its present performance her in Belize. Virginia Kerns and Robert Dirks
src/bzst/18/75/6 November 1975 Ixtabai Every country of the world has its legendary forest creatures. Here is a description of still another forest creature: Ixtabai compiled from snippets of information gathered from a number of people. Richard O. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/18/75/6 November 1975 The Battle of Orange Walk Human memory fades quickly and history becomes entwined with legend. The Battle of Orange Walk was just over one-hundred years ago and already the actual location of the battle is in doubt. Mr. Emond, a teacher at Muffles College, attempts to separate history from legend. Charles John Emond, M. A.
src/bzst/18/75/6 November 1975 Carib Recipes The Belizean History Students at St. John’s College Sixth Form all do research into some aspect of Belizean history or culture. Old recipes that use all local products were collected by several students. Ms. Marva Lewis made the following collection of Carib recipes. Marva Lewis
src/bzst/19/76/1 January 1976 Special Pictorial Edition: Faces and Places of Old Belize (2) In this second number of "Faces and Places" we have limited ourselves to the last two decades of the last century and the first fifteen years of this present century.
src/bzst/20/76/2 March 1976 Belizean Studies
src/bzst/20/76/2 March 1976 Editorial: Belize's Independence
src/bzst/20/76/2 March 1976 Belizean Baptists In the past three years National Studies has carried several articles about the religious beliefs of the Belizean people. The Baptist were among the very first religious to come to Belize and this article traces their history and beliefs. Rev. N.T. Dellinger
src/bzst/20/76/2 March 1976 Dry Days in Rainy Season Belize’s uniqueness is shown in our history, culture, languages, etc. Using an ancient Japanese poetic form, Fr. Wright has expressed several aspects of Belize’s uniqueness in poetry. Tennant C. Wright, S. J.
src/bzst/20/76/2 March 1976 Child Lending in Belize Child-lending is a cultural characteristic that Belize has shared with the West Indies. This article puts the practice in a sociological perspective that helps us to understand the role this practice plays in the fabric of our national life. Margaret Sanford
src/bzst/21/76/3 May 1976 Kekchi Birth and Marriage Customs The Kekchi are found in both Belize and Guatemala and common beliefs are found on both sides of the international borders. Rev. Mr. Cabarrus, S. J. is a Kekchi speaker who has done research both in Belize and in Guatemala. Carlos Cabarrus, S. J.,
src/bzst/21/76/3 May 1976 Why the Spanish Did Not Settle Belize Richard O. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/21/76/3 May 1976 Opinion: The Fight at Orange Walk Town - 1872 Leo H. Bradley
src/bzst/21/76/3 May 1976 American Expatriates in Belize Although no accurate figures are available, there have been an increasing number of American citizens taking up residency in foreign countries. The purpose of this paper is to present those salient features in the decision-making process to emigrate as found among American expatriates living in Belize during the summer of 1972. Pamela A. DeVoe and Ronald E. Mertz
src/bzst/21/76/3 May 1976 Maltese and Creole Charles J. M. R. Gullick
src/bzst/22/76/4 July 1976 Pia Manadi Pai Manadi, Warini, John Canoe and Chakanari are four varieties of processional ceremonies which are performed by the Caribs of Belize during the Christmas Holidays. While they all share certain features in common, Pai Manadi has various unique elements of performance action, especially the death and resurrection of one of the players, which links it strongly in it ancestry to the men’s dramatic ceremonial miming plays of England. Emory Whipple
src/bzst/22/76/4 July 1976 Some Archaeological Work in Belize,1976 Colha, better know to Belizeans as Rancho Creek, on the Northern Highway, is a large Maya site where archaeologists have found the remains of a prehistoric Maya light industry. In fact, during the Maya Late Classic Period (c. 600 B.C. - 900 A.D.) Colha may have been the largest center of industry in the Maya realm. Richard Wilk
src/bzst/22/76/4 July 1976 Primicias in Belize Thanksgiving harvest ceremonies are quite common in Belize in Catholic, Anglican, and other Protestant churches. There are also several agricultural rituals of pre-Columbian origin which are still performed in Belize. However, these latter are not as well know as the more public European-influenced harvest rituals. Most of the information in this article has been gathered by students of Belizean history at St. John’s College Sixth Form. Most of the information has come from Corozal and Orange Walk Districts; some was gathered in the Cayo District. The agricultural rituals of the Toledo District are not covered in this article. A glossary of terms follows. Richard O. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/22/76/4 July 1976 Opinion: The High Cost of Graduating I.E. Sanchez
src/bzst/23/76/5 September 1976 Editorial: The High School Entrance Exam. In April of this year 2,392 primary school students sat for the National Common Entrances Examination for High School. This number represents approximately 81% of all Standard VI children in the country. An analysis of the results of this examination can tell us a good deal about the state of our primary schools, their strengths and their weaknesses.
src/bzst/23/76/5 September 1976 The National Archives Therese Armstead-Fairweather
src/bzst/23/76/5 September 1976 The Legend of X-Tabay The Legend of X-Tabay was related to me by my Mayan grandmother to whom I am most grateful. Eighty-three years old and not in good health, she told it to me with much care in Spanish, after which I translated it into English. The Mayan words which I include are to remind the reader that he is reading a Maya legend of ancient Belize. A list of the Mayan words may be found in a glossary at the end of the legend. For these I am indebted to my father. Miriam Ayuso
src/bzst/23/76/5 September 1976 Buttons and Bones at Benque To most Belizeans the word archaeology has traditionally meant Maya Archaeology. This is a distorted view, for the study of archaeology in Belize encompasses the culture history of the remains that all past Belizeans have left on the land or under the waters. An example of how this traditional view can be slightly adjusted comes from a minor salvage operation undertaken by us at the banks of the Mopan River at Benque Viejo del Carmen in April, 1973. Joseph 0. Palacio
src/bzst/23/76/5 September 1976 The Cattle Industry of Belize One of Belize’s greatest agricultural assets is its incredible potential for a thriving cattle industry. This paper will deal with the history, present status and future potential for development of this industry. Edward G. Benya
src/bzst/24/76/6 November 1976 The Garifuna "Thanksgiving" Catherine L. Macklin
src/bzst/24/76/6 November 1976 Piaye and Pia Manadi C. J. M. R. Gullick
src/bzst/24/76/6 November 1976 Two Eyewitnesses Accounts of Marcus Canul's Attack Charles Emond
src/bzst/24/76/6 November 1976 Creole as a Literary Language Pidgin, in specific cultural and socio-political contexts they arise as a result of language contact between a base language (e.g. English, Spanish, French) and some indigenous language (e.g. Yoruba, Ewe, Papua). While a pidgin fulfills an auxiliary function, being used only by speakers who do not share a common language, a Creole is the mother tongue of its speakers, meeting all the communicative needs of the speech community. This extended function correlates with a wider vocabulary as well as more complicated syntactic devices. Thus creole languages differ from pidgins not only in function but also in linguistic structure. Marlis Hellinger
src/bzst/24/76/6 November 1976 Index to Volume 4
src/bzst/25/77/1 January 1977 Special Pictorial Edition: Faces and Places of Old Belize(3) This issue features photos of soldiers who fought in World War I, pictures of the chicle and cohune industries, of the various types of transportation that once were used, of the terrible damage from hurricanes.
src/bzst/26/77/2 March 1977 The Logwood Trade and its Settlements (Part 1) This is the first of a two-part article dealing with the logwood industry in and about the Bay of Honduras. Gilbert M. Joseph
src/bzst/26/77/2 March 1977 Garifuna Songs of Mourning This paper is based on the assumption that in a culture where songs play and important role, a study of the lyrics of the songs should reveal much about the people who sing them. Eldred Roy Cayetano
src/bzst/26/77/2 March 1977 The Hokeb Ha Vase This article is a chapter taken from EXCAVATION AT HOKEB HA, BELIZE (No. 5 Occasional Publications, BISRA 1977) Joseph 0. Palacio
src/bzst/26/77/2 March 1977 Memoirs of a World War 1 Veteran A sizeable section of Belize City is known as Mesopotamia. The streets in this area bear such names as: Tigris, Euphrates, Amara, Basra, Cairo, Bagdad, Mex, and Alexandria. This part of town was settled extensively by veterans returning from World War 1. the following reminiscences of one of those veterans give us some idea of what those men experienced in that war and they, therefore, left us permanent reminders -- in the street names - of their labors on behalf of freedom. L. Smith
src/bzst/26/77/2 March 1977 Book Review: The Making of Modern Belize: Politics, Society and British Colonialism in Central America, C.H. Grant. Richard O. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/27/77/3 May 1977 The Logwood Trade and its Settlements (Part 2) This final section of a two-part article deals with the logwood settlements in and about the Bay of Honduras. Gilbert M. Joseph
src/bzst/27/77/3 May 1977 The First "Cayo Boat" Trip Mr. Vernon Leslie the Resident Tutor of the Extra Mural Department of the University of the West Indies, is preparing a monograph of Boat trade in Belizean History. He has contributed this information on Cayo Boats. Vernon Leslie
src/bzst/27/77/3 May 1977 The 1794 Register of Saint John's Cathedral D. Gareth Lewis, Dean of Belize
src/bzst/27/77/3 May 1977 Irregular Attendance in Belizean Schools This was originally a lecture given to Education Officers. Belizean Studies is happy to make it available for consideration by concerned members of the Belizean Community. I.E. Sanchez
src/bzst/27/77/3 May 1977 A Personal Protest: Violet Gibson's Letter to Ramsey MacDonald The letter below is an exact copy of the original which is to be found in the Colonial Office records in the Public Records Office in London. It was sent originally to 10, Downing Street whose resident at this time was the socialist Ramsay Macdonald. Macdonald’s private secretary sent it on to the Colonial Office so we may presume that the Prime Minister saw it and Mrs. Gibson’s protest was registered at the highest level. ASHDOWN, Peter
src/bzst/28/77/4 July 1977 Antonio Soberanis and the 1934-1935 Disturbances in Belize This is Part 1 of a two-part article and these important events in the history of Belize. Peter D. Ashdown
src/bzst/28/77/4 July 1977 The Railroads of Belize Transportation is an important facet of a country’s history. In the past issues of Belizean Studies we have had articles on “Cayo” boats and other aspects of Belizean Transportation History. We are happy to here present a short summary of the role of Railroads in Belizean History. Christopher D. Wright
src/bzst/28/77/4 July 1977 Psychological Differentiation Among Garifuna Male Students Ronald E. Mertz
src/bzst/28/77/4 July 1977 An Account by the Count De Perigny of the Kekchi of the Alta Verapaz Michael Howard
src/bzst/28/77/4 July 1977 Book Review: The Formation of A Colonial Society: Belize from Conquest to Crown Colony; O. Nigel Bolland; and Anthropology and History in Yucatan, Edited by Grant D. Jones. BUHLER, S.J., Richard 0.
src/bzst/29/77/5 September 1977 Belizean History - It's Role in a Cultural Revolution I.E. Sanchez
src/bzst/29/77/5 September 1977 Hurricane Hattie W. S. Eustace
src/bzst/29/77/5 September 1977 Part 2 Antonio Soberanis and the 1934-1935 Disturbances In Belize Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/29/77/5 September 1977 A Note on "Wowla" in Belizean Creole Marlis Hellinger
src/bzst/30/77/6 November 1977 Miskito Words in Belize Creole The following article is in part an attempt to provide such an estimate; it is based on an etymological survey of nearly 1,500 Belizean Creole terms, which revealed a hitherto largely unsuspected source of Belizean vocabulary: the language of the Miskito Indians of Nicaragua and Honduras, whose lexical legacy is comparable in proportion to that of Africa. John Holm
src/bzst/30/77/6 November 1977 The Art of the Carbonaro (Making of Charcoal) Edward G. Benya, S.J.
src/bzst/30/77/6 November 1977 The Magistrates of the Northern Districts Post created in 1849 to have control over large influx of immigrant refugees from the Caste War of the Yucatan. Theresa Armstead - Fairweather
src/bzst/30/77/6 November 1977 Index, 1977
src/bzst/31/78/1 January 1978 Special Pictorial Edition: Faces and Places of Old Belize (4) In this 1978 issue we are featuring the ravages of hurricane and fire so that we can better appreciate the courage of those who re-built. The pioneering spirits of our forefathers in the District is also well documented along with the styles and modes of transportation that were typical of Old Belize and about which we all should know more.
src/bzst/32/78/2 March 1978 Belize, Santa Cruz, and Yucatan: The 1884 Articles of Peace The photograph of Colonial Administrator Henry Fowler provides us with momentary vignette of dramatic episode in the struggle for existence of the last truly independent Maya Polity. This brief investigation reveals that behind these static portraits is the unfolding of events that would eventually topple the last of the original major Santa Cruz leaders, threaten the religious basis of the Santa Cruz Polity, and lay the foundation for the Mexican occupation of the Santa Cruz capital in 1901. Grant D. Jones
src/bzst/32/78/2 March 1978 Part Three: Antonio Soberanis and the 1934 - 1935 Disturbances in Belize The ‘agitation’ of Soberanis and the Labour and Unemployed Association (ULA) had culminated in a riot in Belize Town on October 1st, 1934 and the end of that notable day found the worker’s leader residing as a guest of His Majesty in Goal Lane. He was to stay so incarcerated until early November for the administration obviously believed that he was the moving spirit behind the riot even though he had not actively participate in it. Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/32/78/2 March 1978 Book Review: Land In Belize 1765-1871 by Nigel Bolland and Assad Shoman Richard 0. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/32/78/2 March 1978 Part One: The Dairy Industry in Belize Edward G. Benya, S.J.
src/bzst/33/78/3 May 1978 The Phallic Temple at Xunantunich Tennant C. Wright, S.J,
src/bzst/33/78/3 May 1978 Part Four: Antonio Soberanis and the 1934-1935 Disturbances in Belize The case against Tony in the Supreme Court for “bringing His majesty into contempt” was dismissed by the maverick Greenidge in January 1936. The Chief Justice took it upon himself to state that the Criminal Code Amendment Ordinance (1935) under which Soberanis had been summarily convicted in Corozal “goes far beyond the English law… to make works which may be slanderous a criminal offence” and he reduced Tony’s original sentence of an $85.00 fine or 41/2 months hard labour to $25.00 (plus $30 costs) or 1 month’ s hard labour. Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/33/78/3 May 1978 Part Two: The Dairy Industry in Belize Dairying in any nation is an undertaking whose ideal purpose is to feed rations of low quality composition (usually of forage and grain) to animals in order to get a higher quality food for human consumption: milk. The value of milk lies especially in its protein quality (in terms of amino acid balance). Distribution of this food to a maximum of the population falls within the function of the marketing system. Edward G. Benya, S.J.
src/bzst/34/78/4 July 1978 Barrier Reef Country - Its Administrative Centers Leo H. Bradley
src/bzst/34/78/4 July 1978 Antonio Soberanis and the 1934-1935 Disturbances in Belize (Part V): The Causes of Failure. Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/34/78/4 July 1978 Archaeological Investigations in the Stann Creek District Elizabeth Graham
src/bzst/35/78/5 September 1978 A Short Biography of Emelio Awe Emogene Bedran
src/bzst/35/78/5 September 1978 San Pedro, Ambergris Caye in the 1900's Ruben Gonzalez
src/bzst/35/78/5 September 1978 The East Indians of Corozal: A Study of Relatives 1900 - 1930 Zelma Jex
src/bzst/35/78/5 September 1978 Early 20th Century Music in Belize City Barbara Usher
src/bzst/35/78/5 September 1978 Books in 19th Century Belize Vernon Leslie
src/bzst/35/78/5 September 1978 Why I Love Belize The following essay was written originally in 1973 for the National Day Celebrations - the first such celebrations after "Belize" had replaced "British Honduras" as our country’s name. I.E. Sanchez
src/bzst/36/78/6 November 1978 The Founding and Growth of Bullet Tree Falls The following article is a long and well-documented piece that adds understanding to the way in which many of Belize’s villages grew up ethnically and economically diverse. Excerpted from a larger work in which the rise of conflict in such a village is also dealt with, our present selection fills in quite a gap on the early history of village settlement in Belize. Paul Sullivan
src/bzst/36/78/6 November 1978 The Caribs in Central America John Holm
src/bzst/36/78/6 November 1978 Index to all Belizean Studies Articles 1973 - 1978
src/bzst/37/79/1 January 1979 Faces and Places of Old Belize (5) In this 1979 issue we are featuring a dedication to great a Belizean and one of the first leaders of the Belizean nationalist movement, Mr. Antonio Soberanis. Also included are many photos featuring the "Youth of yesteryear," who are today’s leaders of our community. In addition, pictures are presented showing the ravishes of the great hurricane of ’42 which divested Northern Belize, and also the efforts of Belizeans in World War 1.
src/bzst/38/79/2 March 1979 The Development of Spiney Lobster Fishing in Belize, 1920 - 1977 Susanna Vega
src/bzst/38/79/2 March 1979 Belizean Heroes and Patriots: Dr. Frederick Gahne Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/38/79/2 March 1979 Forestry in Belize, Part 1: Beginning of Modern Forestry and Agriculture, 1921 to 1954 Edward G. Benya, S.J.
src/bzst/39/79/3 May 1979 Belizean Heroes and Patriots: Sir Frederick MacKenzie Maxwell Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/39/79/3 May 1979 Some Interesting Belizean Places - Names Belizean place-names are as colorful as the varied people who make up our beloved country. In the early days of our history names given to settlements reflected the settlers’ language, culture, tradition and in many instances historical circumstances. In this brief survey I will examine some Maya, Garifuna and Creole village names, their origins and meanings. I. E. Sanchez
src/bzst/39/79/3 May 1979 Forestry in Belize, Part 11: Modern Times and Transition This is the second and concluding part of an extended examination of Belizean forestry from the early 1920’s to the present day. The first part appeared in our March issue, and the "beginnings" of modern forestry in Belize. Edward G. Benya, S.J.
src/bzst/40/79/4 July 1979 The Battle of St. George's Caye: A New Analysis (Part 1) H. F. Humphreys
src/bzst/40/79/4 July 1979 Book Review: The Belize Issue by Ann Zammit. Richard 0. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/40/79/4 July 1979 Belizean Nursing Education in the 19th
Eleanor Krohn Herrmann
src/bzst/40/79/4 July 1979 Uniforms of the West India Regiment Charles John Emond
src/bzst/41/79/5 September 1979 The Battle of St. George's Caye: A New Analysis (Part 11) This concluding part of Mr. Humphreys’ examination of the Battle of St. George’s Caye describes the Battle, and its consequences for future generations in Belize. H. F. Humphreys
src/bzst/41/79/5 September 1979 How the British won the Battle of St. George's Caye It is difficult to find a single source in Belizean history which explains well the Battle of St. George’s Caye. It is certainly the best-known event in our history - albeit many erroneous notions concerning that event have been passed on through the years. It is hoped that this article and Mr. Humphreys’ two-part examination of the battle (which concludes in this issue) will provide for students and other Belizeans and general readers a good presentation of this event. Mr. Humphreys’ article gives most of the details of the battle itself, so they will not be repeated here except to add further information or to illustrate a point. Richard 0. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/41/79/5 September 1979 Goals, Priorities and the Decolonization of Education in Belize Mr. Bennett’s article was first given as a talk, in February of 1977, to a group of students from the U.S.A. Its points are well worth study and discussion. Joseph A. Bennett
src/bzst/42/79/6 November 1979 Colha, Belize: A Preliminary Statement of the 1979 Season The purpose of this article is to provide a brief review of the first 1979 field season at the site of Colha, Belize. The comments offered here are greatly expanded in a publication issued by the Center for Archaeological Research, the University of Texas at San Antonio, in the late summer of this year. Thomas R. Hester; Harry J. Shafer;
src/bzst/42/79/6 November 1979 The Labourer's Riot of 1894 (Part 1) This "Labourer’s Riot" has previously gone largely unnoticed by historians and what mention has been made of it has erroneously attributed its causes solely to the change of currency of October of the same year. In fact it was brought about by more than just a numerical reduction in wages, and it is of enormous significance in the history of Belize as it marks the beginning of the resistance of ‘organized’ labour to mercantile exploitation. Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/42/79/6 November 1979 Of Boats and the River Charles John Emond
src/bzst/42/79/6 November 1979 Index for 1979 (volume 7)
src/bzst/43/80/1 January 1980 Faces and Places of Old Belize (6) In this 1980 issue we are featuring a dedication to a man who loves Belize very much and was one of the founders of the Credit Union Movement which has helped so many of our fellow citizens. It is usual to wait until a person has died before making a dedication but we believe that deserved honors should be spoken when they can be appreciated. We are happy to dedicate this first issue of the 1980’s to the much loved Father Marion Ganey, S. J.
src/bzst/44/80/2 March 1980 Black Cross Nursing in Belize: A Labour of Love Eleanor Krohn Herrmann
src/bzst/44/80/2 March 1980 Call and Response in Belizean Creole Folk Songs Ervin Beck
src/bzst/44/80/2 March 1980 The Labourer's Riot of 1894 (Conclusion) In the first part of this article Mr. Ashdown described the Constabulary Mutiny of November 1894, occasioned by a currency devaluation in the previous month, and the Labourers’ Petition of December 8, 1894, setting forth grievances to Governor Moloney and asking for governmental action to relieve the distress. The Governor considered the contents of the Labourers’ Petition serious enough to call a meeting of the employers of labour to discuss it. Those gentlemen, however, were united in their opposition to the petition and the petitioners and the only suggestion they had for the Governor was that he revise the customs duties. Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/45/80/3 May 1980 Glyphic Evidence for Classic Maya Militarism Dorie J. Reents and John R. Sosa
src/bzst/45/80/3 May 1980 First (1979) Season's Report on the Ceramics of Colha, Belize The Colha Project is a long-term archaeological project focused on a site in the Maya lowlands which appears to have been specialized stone tool production center. R.E.W. Adams and Fred Valdez Jr.
src/bzst/45/80/3 May 1980 Lamanai (Indian Church): Cross-Section of Belize's Past David Pendergast
src/bzst/45/80/3 May 1980 Cuello, 1979: A Summary of the Season Norman Hammond
src/bzst/46/80/4 July 1980 On Being Indian in Southern Belize: A Research Note James R. Gregory
src/bzst/46/80/4 July 1980 The Answer Songs of Leonie White Creole Folk songs Ervin Beck
src/bzst/46/80/4 July 1980 Subsistence Activity in Belize The following article is the second chapter in draft text of a proposed book for school on the "Economy of Belize". Presenting a generalized view of milpero’s life and activity, it makes for information reading form many who are removed from this level of economic activity. John Wyeth
src/bzst/47/80/5 September 1980 The Great Fire of 1863 John Crane
src/bzst/47/80/5 September 1980 Bootlegging in Belize: 1920 - 1933 Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/47/80/5 September 1980 Women, Agriculture and Development in the Maya Lowland: Profit or Progress? The following article was printed in the ISIS Bulletin No. 11 (Spring, 1979), and is excerpted from the Proceedings and papers of the International Conference on Women and Food held in the University of Arizona, Tuscon, Arizona, in January 1978. Marion Louise Marshall and Olga Stavrakis
src/bzst/48/80/6 November 1980 Circling with the Ancestors: Hugulendii Symbolism in Ethnic Group Maintenance When one reviews the past three centuries of the Black Caribs’ history, their continuing presence as a viable and integrated society in Central America is remarkable. In spite of dislocation from their original homeland and residencies in different colonies and nations (Belize, Guatemala, Honduras and Nicaragua), the descendants of the St. Vincent Black Caribs have retained their integrity as ethnic groups. Marilyn Wells
src/bzst/48/80/6 November 1980 Moho Caye, Belize: A Preliminary Report on the 1979 archaeological season Paul F. Healy and Heather Mckillop
src/bzst/48/80/6 November 1980 Folk History in Creole Topical Songs Many, if not most Creole, songs are based on historical incidents. Although a few arise from an interest in international affairs, most spring from much more humble domestic incidents - frequently homely, embarrassing occurrences that subject their participants to the rimed and sung gossip and scorn of the curious, on looking fold community. Ervin Beck
src/bzst/48/80/6 November 1980 Thomas Gann’s 1903 Report on the Ruins of Lubaantun Below we publish as a valuable item in Belizean studies the first official report ever made on Lubaantun Maya Centre. This was written by Assistant Colonial Surgeon Thomas Gann. The report is found in Government Minute Paper No. 1069 of 1903 in the National Archives, and is copied through the courtesy of the Ministry of Education and the Government Archivist, Leo H. Bradley.
src/bzst/49/81/1 January 1981 Faces and Places of Old Belize (7)
src/bzst/50/81/2 March 1981 The Colonial Administrators of Belize: Sir Ernest Bickham Sweet-Escott Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/50/81/2 March 1981 The Folk History of Alonzo Schultz, Town Baladeer Behind an important group of Creole songs looms the shadow of Alonzo Schultz, a colorful woodcutter who was also a notorious rascal and composer of tropical songs in Belize City in the early 1920’s. Ervin Beck
src/bzst/50/81/2 March 1981 Pigs are a Part of the System: A Lesson in Agricultural Development Richard Wilk
src/bzst/51/81/3 May 1981 Carnival in Northern Belize Jaime Briceño
src/bzst/51/81/3 May 1981 Excavations at Cuello, 1980: A Summary Contributed by: Norman Hammond, Juliette Cartwright, Karen Bruhns, Mark Horton, Richard Wilks, Michael Davenport, Charles Miksicek
src/bzst/51/81/3 May 1981 A Kekchi Account of an Encounter with the Chol Indians Among the original, but extinct, inhabitants of Belize were the Chol Indiands. By the time of the conquest they inhabited an area roughly the same as that earlier covered by the so-called “Old Maya Empire”, that is, the area where Maya Civilization cam into its fullest bloom in the Classic Period. This fact has led to the belief that Chol might have been direct descendants of the people that once built Tikal, Altun Ha, Labaantun and other ceremonial centers of the area. Jon Schackt
src/bzst/52/81/4 July 1981 Body, Soul and Social Structure at the Garifuna dugu This essay is written with thanks to the Belizean government for permitting the research to take place and is intended as a contribution towards the unity of the Belizean people as Belize moves towards independence. Byron Foster
src/bzst/52/81/4 July 1981 The 1980 Season at Colha Contributed by: Thomas R Hester, Harry J. Shafer, Giancarlo Ligabue, Jack D. Eaton and R. E. W. Adams
src/bzst/52/81/4 July 1981 Book Review: Belize, by Ralph Lee Woodward, Jr. James S. Murphy, S. J.
src/bzst/53/81/5&6 1981 Keeping Belize Free, Democratic and Independent James S. Murphy, S. J.
src/bzst/53/81/5&6 1981 Oral History Vignette: The Death of Dr. Harrison in 1916 Dr. Eleanor K. Herrmann
src/bzst/53/81/5&6 1981 The Cayes of Belize: An Archaeological Resource Dr. Michael Easter
src/bzst/53/81/5&6 1981 Comparison of Belize Creole Speech with Other Afro-American Speech Communities In this article, the ethonographic description of Belize Creole speech usage is placed in the context of comparison with speech use in other Afro-American speech communities. The aim of this study is to demonstrate the common cultural patterning of speech use in the different speech communities considered. Dr. Robert French
src/bzst/53/81/5&6 1981 The Belize Elite and its Power Base: Land Labour and Commerce Circa 1890. Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/54/82/1 1982 Mal de Ojo Ramon Cervantes
src/bzst/54/82/1 1982 The Belize Elite Dr. Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/55/82/2 1982 The Mayehac of the Kekchi Belizeans Joseph Cayetano
src/bzst/55/82/2 1982 Pallotti High School Sr. Mary Leonardis, S. A. C.
src/bzst/55/82/2 1982 An Interpretation of Spirit Possession In Southern Coastal Belize Byron Foster
src/bzst/56/82/3&4 1982 A Report on Contemporary Belizean Foodways The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of a dietary survey conducted in Stann Creek and Cayo Districts in 1979, which may serve as a baseline for future studies of this kind. Dr. Carol Jenkins
src/bzst/56/82/3&4 1982 Spirits See Red: The Symbolic Use of Gusueue among the Garif (Black Caribs) of Central America The use of guseue by Garif was part of the culture-system which was carried by them in their migration from the Lesser Antilles to the eastern coastline of Central America. Guseue continues to be a dominant symbol in Garif ritual although modifications of its use have developed in response to different social environments. This paper presents a description of the use of guseue and an analysis of its ritual referents. Modifications in its use and meaning are related to change in time and place. Dr. Marilyn McKillop Wells
src/bzst/56/82/3&4 1982 Garifuna Musical Style and Culture History In this paper, we present the results of a Cantometric analysis of a sample of Garifuna music recorded in Southern Belize. Doctors Carol & Travis Jenkins
src/bzst/56/82/3&4 1982 Mayas, Yucatecans and Englishmen in the Nineteenth Century Fiesta System of Northern Belize Dr. Grant Jones
src/bzst/57/82/5 1982 Peasant Rationality: A K'eckchi’ Example Throughout the Third World Today, peasant Indian communities are continually being drawn into national economic and political systems. This process may take various forms, including increasing reliance on cash crops for market sales, wage labouring, or, in extreme cases, migration to urban centers or market towns. Few communities remain which have not yet felt the expanding tentacles of commercialism. This paper will explore the ways in which modern economic incentive have influenced traditional relations in a K'eckchi’ Maya Village in southern Belize. Nancy A. Berte
src/bzst/57/82/5 1982 Household Composition and Socio-Economic Strategies in Orange Walk Town, Belize The social and economic determinants of household composition are assessed for orange Walk town, a district governmental, agriculture, and retailing center of 6,000 people in 1970. There is a normative preference for and a statistical predominance of nuclear family house hold in each ethnic category and social stratum. This reflects the degree of market involvement and the amount of immigration which has occurred. C. Thomas Brockmann
src/bzst/58/82/6 1982 Oral History: Cleopatra White Dr. Eleanor Krohn Herrman
src/bzst/59/83/1 1983 The Sisters of Mercy in Belize Sr. Yvonne Hunter, R. S. M.,
src/bzst/59/83/1 1983 Ultzheimer's Remarks on the Caribs in the Years 1599 - 1601 In searching for ethnohistorical evidence of the ancestors of the Garifuna we found and early German source which mentioned some cultural traits of the inhabitants of the Lesser Antilles and of the N. E. coast of South America. The original home of the Black Caribs of Garifuna is estimated to be in St. Vincent and supposedly in Dominica (Conzemius 1928). Andrew R. Craston and Christian Ratch,
src/bzst/60/83/2 1983 The History of Archaeological Research in Belize Jaime Awe and Heather Mackillop
src/bzst/60/83/2 1983 Book Reviews: Archaeology at Colha Richard 0. Buhler, S. J.
src/bzst/60/83/2 1983 The Ramonal Ruins, Corozal District During the course of the 1981 archaeological field season at Cerros, workmen from Chunox village invited the Cerros crew to investigate another area of extensive Maya ruins called Ramonal. This archaeological Zone is located approximately 6 miles east of Chunox village and 1 mile to the east of a large canal which is said to have been excavated within the last 100 years in connection with logging activities in the area. Suzanne Lewenstein
src/bzst/61/83/3 1983 Memories at Graduation Time Abel Rudon
src/bzst/61/83/3 1983 Lamanai, 1981, Belize David M Pendergast
src/bzst/61/83/3 1983 Feeding Ourselves: The Flying Potato I. E. Sanchez
src/bzst/61/83/3 1983 Belmopan before Pauling: An Ancient Maya Site H. Topsey, J. Awe, J. Morris and A. Moore
src/bzst/62/83/4 1983 The History of Orange Walk, Second Edition (Special Issue) Charles John Emond
src/bzst/63/83/5 1983 Archaeological Investigations at Colha, Belize: The 1981 Season T. Hester, G. Ligabue, J. D. Eaton,
src/bzst/63/83/5 1983 Archaeological Investigations at Nohmul And Santa Rita: 1979 - 1980 Arlen F. & Diane Z. Chase
src/bzst/64/83/6 1983 Ranking of Northern Belizean Maya Sites The following paper is a first trial at rank size analysis of northern Belize Maya centers for two sequent time periods. Implications are drawn from the analysis, and comparative comments made in the context of similar analysis done for other lowland Maya regions. R.E.W. Adams
src/bzst/64/83/6 1983 Belize and its Neighbours: A Preliminary Report on Colonial Records of the Audiencia of Guatemala Reports on the contacts of the British with their neighbors, particularly the Maya, are rare in papers from the 17th and 18th centuries. Reasons have been claimed in the illiteracy of the English settlers and hazards of the times. Information on the indigenous inhabitants has also been sought, with some success, in the papers of the Audiencia of Mexico, as is logical, for much of this area was administered, via Salamanca de Bacalar, ultimately by the Audiencia of Mexico. L. H. Feldman
src/bzst/65/84/1&2 1984 Belize at Two: Keeping Its Appointment with History This issue is base on the Anglo-Guatemalan Claim James S. Murphy, S. J.
src/bzst/66/84/3 1984 Special Study: Food and Social Relations In a Belizean Garifuna Village Lisurnia provides a setting for the study of food and social relations. It is a rural community whose population consists heavily of children an older folks. Lisurnia is surrounded by large tracts of easily available, arable land and faces the sea, yet it is not production most of its food. The food supply is maintained by a wide range of cash and non-cash exchange methods not only among the village but also with others beyond the village. Dr. Joseph Palacio
src/bzst/66/84/3 1984 Food Exchange Systems Food circulates in Lisurnia through cash and non-cash exchange systems. Cash exchange consists of petty trading and large scale trading. Non-cash exchange is based on participation in the subsistence economy and role obligation. In the last part of this paper I discuss how food exchange reflects rank in the village social structure. Dr. Joseph Palacio
src/bzst/67/84/4 1984 Rural Settlement Change in Belize, 1970-1980: The Effects of Road During research on agricultural change and development in Belize, I found it necessary to profile the rural agricultural population of the country, and get some idea of how it is growing and changing. I was particularly interested in the ways rural settlements have grown, and the effects which road construction has had on the countryside. This topic has direct relevance to government policy towards rural settlement, especially on the question of how settled farming can be encouraged and milpa farming can be discouraged. Richard E. Wilk
src/bzst/67/84/4 1984 The Archaeology of Hick's Caye, Belize Matthew Boxt
src/bzst/68/84/5 1984 Cooperatives: "Failures" Versus "Success" Among anthropologists, with their knowledge of large numbers of societies from around the world, it has become almost axiomatic that cooperatives usually fail to meet their promoters’ expectations as vehicles for development and modernization. I personally have research data, from the southern Belizean community of San Antonio, of two separate cooperative ventures: on initially seemed a huge success but was in the end a colossal failure; the other had a history which commanded respect but a future (at last word) which was much in doubt. James R. Gregory
src/bzst/68/84/5 1984 The Tzuultak'a: Religious Lore and Cultural Processes among the Kekchi Jon Schackt
src/bzst/69/84/6 1984 The Archaeology of the Valley of Peace In April of 1982 the Belmopan Police notified us that they had confiscated some artifacts from a Guatemalan citizen. These artifacts later proved to be fragments of a nearly complete imitation pabellon model-carved vase. Under questioning, the individual revealed that he had collected the pieces from a mound that was currently being bulldozed at the Salvadoran refugee village site. This village later became known as Valley of Peace, a name we also adopted for our site. Jaime Awe
src/bzst/70/85/1 1985 A Social History of Caye Caulker This article reconstructs the social and economic history of Caye Caulker, Belize. The aim is to present a historical description of the people who have settled on Caye Caulker, the ways they have made a living and the events that have shaped their culture. Dr. Anne Sutherland and Laurie Kroshus
src/bzst/71/85/2 June 1985 An Architectural History of Belize Both the ancient past and the contemporary present forge themselves into one tradition that makes Belize distinct in comparison with the rest of Central America and the other English speaking nations in the Americas. Because of its location, Belize has always been more cosmopolitan than provincial. Its architecture reflects this cultural framework from the vernacular construction to the monumental structures. This architectural heritage must be judged within the framework of the civilization which created it against the universal standards. H. L. Meredith
src/bzst/71/85/2 June 1985 The Nohmul Project Report, 1983 This article forms part of the preliminary report on the 1983 field season at Nohum., Orange Walk and Corozal Districts, which included also major excavations in the ceremonial center, settlement along the Rio Hondo. A. Pyburn, S. Cohen, etc
src/bzst/71/85/2 June 1985 Educational Modernization in Southern Belize This paper is intended as a contribution to our understanding of the relationship between educational modernization and economic development, a relationship whose treatment by social scientists has been subject to much variation. Dr. James R. Gregory
src/bzst/72/85/3&4 September 1985 Testing a Socio- Linguistic Model In Belize: An Analysis Belize is largely virgin territory for the social scientists and much spadework has yet to be done. Some very interesting socio-linguistic works about Belize have been published, e.g. Marlis Hellinger, Aspects of Belizean Creole. In a way this paper will "pick up" where Hellinger left off. Hellinger in here "Aspect of Belizean Creole" concluded that of the five (six) major languages spoken in Belize, English has in fact the status of a second language, whereas Belizean Creole is the dominant language of most vital communicative functions. Andrew Lopez
src/bzst/72/85/3&4 September 1985 German Migration to Belize: The Beginnings Belizeans have attempted from time to time historical sketches of their several ethnic groups. In this article we look at many of the Germans who have settled in Belize from the late 18th century, and particularly from 1850, and offer an evaluation of their contributions and achievements. St. John Robinson
src/bzst/73/85/5&6 December 1985 Language Change and Ethnic Identity in Eastern Corozal Donna Birdwell-Pheasant
src/bzst/73/85/5&6 December 1985 Kinship and Family Structure on Caye Caulker On Caye Caulker there are two important distinctions between people. Islanders and non-islanders, kin ("family") and non-kin. These distinctions have two important implications: Islanders have preferential access to land and to sources of economic support; kin or family provide valuable economic and social support. With these links as given, in this article we shall describe the structure of kin relationships which are based on cognatic descent, patrilineal surnames, family localities, "Caribbean" patterns of conjugal ties, and "Latin American" patterns of household. Dr. Anne Sutherland and Laurie Kroshus
src/bzst/73/85/5&6 December 1985 A Logical Chronology of Month's Names in Garifuna "Carib" W. M. Arzu
src/bzst/74/86/1 1986 The Growth and Development of Belize City Although Belize City has almost always been the centre of population in Belize, few studies have been devoted to its historical geography - or indeed to the urban geography of the country as a whole. The purpose of this paper is to gather together much of the scattered material on Belize City, in the hope that this codification will help the reader to understand the growth and present status of the city, and perhaps inspire others to do further research on this, still the major urban centre of Belize. John C. Everitt, Ph.D.,
src/bzst/75/86/2 1986 The Colonial Administrators of Belize: Sir Alfred Moloney (1891 - 1897). Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/75/86/2 1986 Garifuna Traditions in Historical Perspectives Dr. Nancie L. Gonzalez
src/bzst/76/86/3 1986 Belize Release Me, Let Me Go: The
Impact of U.S. Mass Media on Emigration in Belize
Among the troubles Third World nations face today are two "flow" problems - the flow of foreign culture and values into developing nations via mass media; and the flow of populations out of these countries and into the more developed centers of the North. The recent introduction of television into Belize, a new Central American/Caribbean nation with a high emigration rate, provides an opportunity to examine possible links between these two problems. Specifically, we can explore the association between exposure to U.S. mass media content and the desire among young Belizeans to leave home and move to the United States. C. Roser, L. B. Snyder & S. H. Chaffee’s
src/bzst/76/86/3 1986 Effects of Transborder Television in Corozal Town and Surrounding Villages Close relationships between media exposure and attitudinal change in the Third World were first observed by Lerner. His modernization model identified the mass media as significant agents of change toward modernity in developing societies. Subsequent studies uncovered significant associations between individual exposure to the media and social mobility. Social mobility was assumed to encourage the movement away from traditional inclinations. Omar Souki Oliveria
src/bzst/77/87/1 1987 The Colonial Administrator as Historian: Burdon, Burns and the Battle of St. George's Cay Some colonial officials, much to the frustration of the Colonial Office, developed intense loyalties and romantic attachments to their charges. These love affairs with particular colonies in particular places led – or so the Colonial office held - to a marked lack of necessary detachment and a consequent desire on the part of the man on the spot to vigorously champion the specific concerns of his colony against the overseeing generalists in Downing Street. This tendency of the over-seas administrator to unduly align himself with the interest of his posting led on occasion to metropolitan - colonial friction: it also often encouraged the committed and besotted to glorify their protégées in print. Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/77/87/1 1987 Television and Video Ownership in Belize During 1985 UNESCO and the Broadcasting Research Unit of London undertook a study of the international flow of video hardware and software, which will be published early in 1987. Belize was selected as on of the countries to be studied, part of the research including an estimate of ownership of television and VCRs in Belize in mid-1985. The results are summarized in tables. Trevor Petch
src/bzst/77/87/1 1987 A. Z. Preston and His Work At a time when the hope of good management of money and people, dominates the political and economic designs for Jamaica, the untimely death of Dr. A. Z. Preston former Vice-Chancellor o the University of the West Indies must give the talkers and non-doers among us pause. Rex Nettleford
src/bzst/77/87/1 1987 Book Reviews: Rediscovering the Past at Mexico's Periphery by: Gilbert M. Joseph Leo H. Bradley
src/bzst/77/87/1 1987 Book Reviews: Belize - A New Nation In Central America by: 0. Nigel Bolland Lita Hunter Krohn & David Price
src/bzst/77/87/1 1987 Book Reviews: Interpreting Signs of Illness by: Kathryn Vance Staiano Homero Escalante
src/bzst/78/87/2 1987 Belizean Nationalism: The emergence of a new Identity. Although Belize is on the Central American mainland, it is an English speaking country with a cultural and historical tradition which more closely parallels the traditions of the West Indies than those of its Spanish speaking Central American neighbours. Because of their British colonial heritage, and the long-standing animosity toward the Spanish - both in the early days of the colony and more recently in the dispute with Guatemala - many Belizeans reject a Central American affiliation and consider Belize a Caribbean nation. Karla Heusner
src/bzst/78/87/2 1987 Oil in Guatemala: An Economic Factor in the Heads of Agreement. This paper argues that economic development in Guatemala, in particular the exploration and exportation of petroleum, was an important factor which helps to account for the Guatemalan Government’s readiness to negotiate the Heads of Agreement, the attempt made in March of 1981 to resolve the long-standing dispute with Britain over Belize. The following will attempt to gather the evidence for this claim by examining the state of affairs in Northern Guatemala from the late 1970s to the early 1980s, and by showing their connection with the topic which surfaced in the Heads of Agreement, the construction of pipelines from Guatemala through Belize. Herman J Byrd
src/bzst/79/87/3 1987 Men, Women and Modernization in a Mayan Community This paper analyzes recent developments in the Mopan Maya Indian village of San Antonio in Southern Belize in order determine whether - and if so, in what ways - these observations are applicable to that community. The analysis is based on the results of fifteen months of field work in San Antonio during 1968 - 69 and the findings of a six month follow-up study in 1977 James R. Gregory
src/bzst/79/87/3 1987 The Kekchi and the settlement of Toledo District. The Kekchi of southern Belize are a small splinter group from a much larger population that has its homeland in the dissected plateaus and rugged mountains of the Alta Verapaz Department of Guatemala, and this number is undoubtedly much higher today. The 3000 or so Kekchi in southern Belize, however, are ethnographically much better known that those in Guatemala. Richard R.Wilk
src/bzst/79/87/3 1987 The Prisoner and the Chol Cuink: A Modern Kekchi Story This story was told on May 18, 1979, by Manuel Cab, in Aguacate Village, Toledo District. The next day Mateo Cab (Manuel’s son) translated the taped story from the original Kekchi into English onto another tape. Laura Kosakowsky transcribed this final tape. Richard Wilk then re-typed the original transcription, edited the English version lightly in order to improve its readability and grammar, and added explanatory notes. This story has a number of interesting features - it is highly traditional, rooted firmly in two thousand years of Mayan oral story-telling and mythology - but it is also historical, referring to the 16th and 17th century relationships between the Kekchi and Chol. And the story is also very contemporary; some of the themes may be derived from European folklore, and on of the characters entered during recent history. R. Wilk, M. Cab, L. Kosakowsky
src/bzst/80/88/1 1988 Catholic Social Principle and the Manley Programme This paper is born of two convictions: first, the Roman Catholic Church, in its body of social teaching, possesses an instrument of considerable usefulness in a world torn by much strife, strife rooted in one form or another of injustice. Secondly, that for purposes of credibility, it is important to demonstrate that this body of teaching is capable of influencing the efforts of individuals to build a world that is more just. James Murphy, S. J.
src/bzst/81/88/2 1988 Central America, Belize and the Third World Wayne M. Clegern
src/bzst/81/88/2 1988 Britain, British Honduras and Belize This paper seeks to assess the performance of British government over the centuries, by examining specific instances of its action or failure to act in relation to the territory, which may have been significant in producing the present situation. D. A. G. Waddell
src/bzst/81/88/2 1988 E Pluribas Qua: Belizean Culture and the Immigrant Past Belize’s peculiar geographic situation as an Anglo-creole enclave on an otherwise Hispano-mestizo landmass has given this country "an astonishingly diverse culture", one which differs in many ways from that of other Anglo-creole territories of the West Indies. St. John Robinson
src/bzst/81/88/2 1988 Book Review: Party Politics by: Assad Shoman Carla Barnett
src/bzst/82/88/3 1988 Creating and Manipulating Power within Dependency I have approached the problem of power relations in the citrus industry in Belize from the perspective of political anthropology. A central debate which has shaped political anthropology concerns the issue of whether power relations are structured a priori, or whether they are negotiated. Laurie Kroshus Medina
src/bzst/82/88/3 1988 "Transnational Politics: Coca- Cola Foods in Belize" This paper is a case study of the Coca-Cola Foods entrance into Belize and its subsequent failure to carry out its initial plans to grow citrus for the U.S. market. The case illustrates the often asymmetrical bargaining dynamics between a small country and a large transnational corporation. David A. Kyle
src/bzst/82/88/3 1988 "Reporting of Belize by Two International Newspapers" Much recent research has focused upon the impact of foreign, particularly Anglo-American, mass media upon public perceptions and actions in Third World countries. For example, a recent study has examined the influence of U.S. mass media upon Belizeans’ perceptions and actions, particularly in the context of emigration. At the same time, it is important to remember that the transmission of information by mass media is multidirectional. International public perception of a small Third World country such as Belize is also greatly influenced by portrayal of that country by mass media, particularly North America and European newspapers, television and radio. David H. Lewis, Michael Day
src/bzst/83/89/1 1989 Colonial Time and T.V. Time: Media and Historical Consciousness in Belize While Belize has avoided most of the political and military strife that has torn its Central American neighbors, and the threatened Guatemalan invasion has never come, the country has been shaken to its cultural fundament by another invasion that seems even less controllable than African killer bees. American television programming has become a central fact of Belizean culture. Even in rural areas the evening hours are captured by the Cosby Show, baseball, and regular network fare from TV movies to CNN news. Richard Wilk
src/bzst/83/89/1 1989 Country of No Return: Belize since Television In the ever-occurring deliberations about possible effects of mass communications, certain countries surface as archetypal examples - almost as "countries of the moment." In the 1950s and 1960s, when radio (especially through forums) and television were believed to be development catalysts, India, American Samoa and one or two other territories wee at center stage. In the 1970s, Brunei, with its gigantic and accelerated leap into color television, and Indonesia and India, with their PALAPA and S.I.T.E satellites, became focal points, followed by the Middle East, with its overall rapid advancement in use of new information technology. Dr. John A. Lent
src/bzst/83/89/1 1989 Book Review: Colonialism and Resistance in Belize: Essays in Historical Sociology by: Dr. O. Nigel Bolland James S. Murphy, S. J.
src/bzst/84/89/2 1989 "The Implementation of Belizean Studies Programmes in Secondary Schools, 1964-1987" Since the attainment of self-government in 1964, and even more significantly after independence in 1981, nationalism has become a prominent feature of the Belizean experience. Belizean artists, poets, choreographers, sculptors, musicians and novelists have produced works richly expressive of the Belizean experience and ethnic complexity, while political independence remains the most obvious accomplishment of the earliest nationalist movement. Francis Humphreys
src/bzst/84/89/2 1989 "United States - Belize Relations in A Time of Tension: 1861- 1862" The United States has never had a strategic interest in Belizean territory, has never intervened directly (at least in a visible way) in Belizean internal affairs, and has certainly never invaded the country of landed troops to protect American interests. Yet there was a time, about 130 years ago, when Belize and the United States may have been on the brink of armed conflict. Richard Wilk
src/bzst/84/89/2 1989 A Democracy Too Soon: The Constitutional Proposals 1923 - 1925 One witness to the Riot Commission of 1919 testified to his belief that the soldiers who had instigated the violence felt that "politically the Colony is very backward" and Bennett believed that "the rioting had a political aspect". By ‘political’ he meant that the practice of democracy in Belize was not as well advanced as elsewhere in the colonial empire and there was a widespread desire among the populace for the reestablishment of the elective principle in the constitution. Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/85/89/3 1989 John Coxon and the Role of Buccaneering in the Settlement of the Yucatan Colonial Frontier Frontier settler and pirate, founding father and social outcast - John Coxon was all of these. His career reveals the dual social personality of the rugged Englishmen who first settled at Laguna de Terminos on the Bay of Campeche near modern Ciudad del Carmen, as both buccaneers and cutters of what was then a valued commodity: logwood. Gilbert M. Joseph
src/bzst/85/89/3 1989 The Poetry of Colonialism: 19th Century Doggerel about Belize Poems are many things to many different people. They can be amusing, emotional, romantic, public or very private, abstract or descriptive. To an anthropologist like myself, however, poetry is important as a window into another culture and another time. They can even express ideas that the writer held, but was not consciously aware of at the time. Just as Homer has been a key, for generations of scholars, to the thought and emotions of the ancient Greeks, poems of other culture have helped us to understand how people see themselves, each other and the world. Richard Wilk
src/bzst/85/89/3 1989 The Valdez Proposal: A Rebel General's Plan for a German-Guatemalan Invasion of Belize With healthy doses of good fortune, the secret proposal laying before the German Minister to Mexico might reshape the map of Central America. It might also relieve beleaguered German troops on the Western Front. In the desperate summer of 1918, German Minister von Eckhardt had to consider any proposal that could possibly aid the Fatherland’s faltering war effort. Jaime Bisher
src/bzst/86/90/1 1990 Gold Potential of the Maya Mountains of Belize From investigations made in the Maya mountains since the 18th century, it appears that the gold occurrences are controlled by a Permo-Triassic volcanogenic and granitic complex. Jean H. Cornec
src/bzst/86/90/1 1990 The Impact of the Anglo-Guatemalan Dispute on the International politics of Belize Alma H. & Dennis H. Young
src/bzst/86/90/1 1990 No Turning Back: U.S. Aid and Investment in Belize In 1981 Belize obtained independence from Great Britain; two years later the U. S. Agency for International Development (AID) opened its mission doors, increasing aid by twenty-fold in the 1980’s. This paper will explore the expanding relationship between the U. S. and Belize through aid and trade that occurred after Belizean independence and continued through the 1980’s. David Kyle
src/bzst/87/90/2&3 1990 The Afro-Caribbean Presence In Central America The volatility of regional politics and the predominance of Latin culture in the Central American isthmus have tended to overshadow a mainland Afro-Caribbean presence dating from slavery’s 16th century introduction into the Western hemisphere. This study delineates in general terms the historical role of Central America’s African population in the region’s emergent national social formations. The essay surveys the ethnohistorical record in a review of the Afro-Latin encounter in the Caribbean lowlands of Central America. Turning to the Belizean experience, it projects beyond questions of ethnicity to a more fundamental challenge, the forging of a uniquely national identity in a milieu of cross-cutting cultural, socio-economic and political influence. Michael Cutler Stone
src/bzst/87/90/2&3 1990 The Mosquito Shore and The Bay of Honduras during the Era of the American Revolution. This paper offers an overview of the impact of the American Revolution on British settlement in Central America, including a more detailed discussion of the role of the American Loyalists (those colonists who opposed the war) than has yet appeared in print. It also includes an analysis of certain British Settlers in Central America who were bracketed with the loyalists. Finally, the little-known Skeleton Papers, located in the Scottish Records Office, Edinburgh, yield interesting information about the economy of the Mosquito Shore. Wallace Brown
src/bzst/87/90/2&3 1990 Book Reviews: Books by: Robert R. Naylor (1) Influencia Británica en el Comercio Centroamericano Durante las Primeras Décadas de la Independencia, 1821 - 1851 (Antigua, Guatemala: Centro de Investigaciones Regionales de Mesoamerica, Serie Monográfica: 3, 1966) and (2) Penny Ante Imperialism: The Mosquito Shore and the Bay of Honduras, 1600 - 1914: A Case Study in British Informal Empire Herman J. Byrd
src/bzst/88/91/1 June 1991 The Commemoration of the Ignatian year and Introduction of Fr. Charles T. Hunter, S. J. James S. Murphy, S. J.
src/bzst/88/91/1 June 1991 From Mono-Cultural Myopia to Multi-Cultural Vision: The Role of Jesuit Secondary Education in Maintaining Cultural Pluralism in Belize. Charles T. Hunter, S. J.
src/bzst/88/91/1 June 1991 Cultural Colonization and Educational Underdevelopment: Changing patterns of American Influence in Belizean Schooling. Charles Rutheiser
src/bzst/88/91/1 June 1991 Commentary on Charles Rutheiser's Changing Patterns of American Influence in Belizean Schooling Charles Rutheiser’s paper presents an interesting analysis of the growing presence of agencies of U. S. origin in Belize and their influence on formal education in this country. However, he also suggests that Belizeans are aware of this American presence and its actual and potential influence, are critical of it and do what they can, when they can, to avoid becoming prey to its "neocolonial orientation." J. Alexander Bennett
src/bzst/88/91/1 June 1991 Book Review: Character & Caricatures in Belizean Folklore by Meg Craig Charles T. Hunter, S. J.
src/bzst/89/91/2&3 December 1991 Post-War Guatemalan Foreign Policy and the Independence of Belize Dean 0. Barrow
src/bzst/89/91/2&3 December 1991 Developments in Guatemala and Belize - Guatemala Relations in the Independence Decade This paper sets out to review developments within Guatemala over the last decade with the aim of providing some informative commentary on developments within Guatemala which could help explain the dramatic turnabout of the entrenched Guatemalan refusal to recognize and independent Belize. Herman J. Byrd
src/bzst/89/91/2&3 December 1991 Cockburn, Miller and the Shift in British Policy in Belize 1834-1835 Karl R. DeRouen
src/bzst/89/91/2&3 December 1991 Christmas and Bramming in Belize City The purpose of this paper is to describe ritual and festive features of Christmas in Belize City (1989) some of which are borrowed, and others that are emerging as distinctly its own. Of particular interest in addition to traditional holiday activities, is the "bram" ,a community based celebration that includes music, dancing and feasting. Laurie A. Greene & Joseph Rubenstein
src/bzst/89/91/2&3 December 1991 Book Review: In Times like These by: Zee Edgell Charles T. Hunter, S. J.
src/bzst/90/92/1 May 1992 The University's Christian Inspiration To clarify the future of the university from the perspective of theology and its requirements, it is worthwhile turning to something that precedes theology and university: the fundamental principles of Christian faith. These principles, respecting the particular nature of theology and the university, are the ones that can provide guidance, empowerment, and critique for both, shedding light on their interrelationship as well. Jon Sobrino, S. J.
src/bzst/90/92/1 May 1992 Petty Smuggling and Lost Revenue at Santa Elena So who hasn’t shopped in Chetumal? For some it is a routine chore, for others, a special day; for many it is a necessity, and for a few, a luxury. But for the government it is a problem because it means lost revenue. Of course shoppers pay a tariff tax when they cross the border but only the naïve would believe everyone pays as much as the law dictates. In this short paper, I take up the question of just how much money is the government losing in uncollected imports duties at the Santa Elena crossing. The paper then scores a final note by raising tow recommendations that could help alleviate the problem of generating public revenue in Belize. Bruce Weigand
src/bzst/90/92/1 May 1992 Abortion in Belize: A Preliminary Assessment The abortion issue is a multi-faceted one with ethical, medical, religious, social, and legal dimensions. An exhaustive discourse on all these aspects would be quite lengthy and beyond the scope of this paper and the competence of its authors. This paper is essentially a preliminary assessment of the abortion issue in Belize. It sets out primarily to share some results of a questionnaire meant to examine public views and understanding of abortion in Belize. Manuela Lue & Sarah Hobbs
src/bzst/90/92/1 May 1992 Commentary: Sobrino's The University's Christian Inspiration Lorraine Gomez
src/bzst/91/92/2 October 1992 1492: The Old World Discovers the New World Again It was a fateful meeting between the visitors, Old World European Columbus and his sailors; and the hosts, New World Arawaks. Columbus thought he had reached Asia. Neither knew that meeting would alter human history. Neither envisioned the monumentally beneficial and catastrophic effects. Both would influence each other. The Europeans would prevail. Alexandra M. Coye
src/bzst/91/92/2 October 1992 Historical Perspective on the Spanish Language of Belize One is immediately impressed by the uniqueness of Belizean Spanish intonation, although this aspect along with the many syntactic, morphological and lexical features which set it apart from other Spanish dialects, have yet to be fully studied. The present study examines the origins and history of the Spanish language in Belize in an attempt to explain why this uniqueness has developed. Timothy W. Hagerty
src/bzst/91/92/2 October 1992 Prominent Citizens of the Confederate Community in Belize City, 1865 - 1870 As the political and economic leader, Belize City became the center of efforts to populate the interior of the colony. A large concentration of Ex-Confederates at Belize City resulted even thought not all immigrants entered the colony through port city. The impression of the new arrivals paint a wondrous picture of the city and draw grand characterization of the more prominent members of the Confederate community in the colony. Donald Clyde Simmons Jr.
src/bzst/91/92/2 October 1992 Commentary: On Saving Anancy Ervin Beck
src/bzst/92/92/3 December 1992 Geomorphology and Hydrology of the Blue Hole, Caves Branch Michael J. Day
src/bzst/92/92/3 December 1992 The Afro-Belizean Cultural Heritage: Its Role in Combating Recolonization Examine the historical origins of Garifuna-Creole friction, then demonstrate that the African heritage of both ethnic groups can be the "common, shared values" needed to fully emancipate them from their colonial prejudice. I will argue that "the danger of cultural recolonization, especially through the mass media" faced by these ethnic groups can effectively be combated through the re-discovery, preservation and enhancement of the common African heritage that they share. Francis Humphreys
src/bzst/92/92/3 December 1992 Garifuna Immigrants in Los Angeles: Attempts at Self-Improvement Since the 1960’s thousands of Garifuna people among other Belizean have migrated to the United States of America. In keeping with the large amount of research don on them in their Central American home countries, scholarly interest by anthropologists has followed them. "The purpose of this paper is to suggest that a major social change is now occurring which we believe will ultimately destroy Garifuna culture as its bearers now know it". Joseph O. Palacio
src/bzst/93/93/1 May 1993 Social and Cultural Implications of Recent Demographic Changes in Belize My aim in this presentation is to initiate a sociological analysis of the dramatic changes within the population of Belize during the past decades. I will try to show that there are links among the changes I see on Hydes Lane as well as in other parts of the country. Briefly these changes include an increasing outflow of Belizeans, the inflow of Central Americans and of other foreigners, increase in poverty, and conspicuous display of wealth. Finally I will make some recommendations about much needed future research and action. Joseph O. Palacio
src/bzst/93/93/1 May 1993 The History of Television in Belize: 1980 - Present This paper will deal with the history of television in Belize. However, in order to put Belizean television in perspective, a brief overview of broadcasting and the press is needed. Dion Weaver
src/bzst/93/93/1 May 1993 Alan Burns and Robert Turton: Two Views of the Public Good Peter Ashdown
src/bzst/94/93/2 October 1993 Belize: As Presented in Her Literature "… and by my works I will show you my faith," is appropriate advice, and, the theme of this paper. Using the two bibliographies of Belize, namely Minkel and Alderman, and Woodward, journals published in Belize, monographs published during the past decade, and a bit of personal observation from this writer’s fifteen years of annual visits we will see a shift in focus from a predominance of archeological reports, agricultural and forestry bulletins, catalogues of Belizean flora and fauna, to a mature compendium of books and articles which deal with the nation as a nation of people, more than as a locus of physical facts and artifacts. Bruce Ergood
src/bzst/94/93/2 October 1993 Why Toycie Bruk Down: A study of Zee Edgell’s Beka Lamb. In this Oft-Quoted passage from Beka Lamb, Belizean novelist Zee Edgell distills the essence of her novel: in Belize, it has often been difficult to make progress. Mary Parham
src/bzst/94/93/2 October 1993 The Sinners’ Bossanova: Its Caribbean Roots The subject of this paper is a controversial novel. I would imagine, on the basis of published comment, that some of you may have wondered why anyone would choose to discuss it in a context of literary criticism. In other words, to a great extent, it has been dismissed as trivial and escapist. Steve Glassman
src/bzst/94/93/2 October 1993 Belize’s Literary Heritage: A 500 year Perspective Long before the Europeans set foot on the American mainland, exceptional civilizations had arisen throughout the continent. Notable among these civilizations were the Mayas who flourished in Guatemala, Belize, Mexico, Honduras and El Salvador, as far north as the Yaqui and Mayo Valleys in Mexico down to the midpoint indigenous American and alien European cultures; that encounter represented a point of contact and conflict between the two cultures in which both groups underwent vast changes. David Ruiz
src/bzst/95/94/3 February 1994 Imaging Belize: Tourist and Tourism Advertising In this paper I briefly discuss conceptions of tourism and its connection to the imagined community. I then look at tourism advertising and review past and current images of Belize in tourism advertising and publicity. I conclude with some thoughts on the future of the tourist industry and tourism advertising in the case of Belize. Michael D. Phillips
src/bzst/95/94/3 February 1994 Indirect Rule and the Alcalde System: Among the Gariguna of Belize In administering its empire in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, Great Britain implemented diverse forms of indirect rule among subject populations. A variety of administrative systems were introduced on the Caribbean coast of Central America, where by the seventeenth century Britain vied with Spain for control of labour and resources. This article examines how the alcalde system, a form of indirect rule utilizing locally appointed headmen, was adopted as a means of administering Garifuna communities in the nineteenth century Belize. Mark Moberg
src/bzst/95/94/3 February 1994 Reflections: New Vigor for the Church: Conversations on the Global Challenges of Our Times Peter-Hans Kolvenbach, S. J.
src/bzst/95/94/3 February 1994 Book Review: Belize, 2nd Edition. By: Peggy Wright and Brian E. Coutts Lawrence Vernon
src/bzst/96/95/1 March 1995 Looking Beyond The Year 2000: The Implications of Development in Belize’s Economy in the 1980’s and 1990’s This paper begins with an examination of the present structure of the economy of Belize. On the basis of this, it proceeds to discern the challenges of the 21st century. We should make it clear from the outset that when we speak of "the economy", although we may be talking in abstract terms of production and consumption, investment and saving, diversification and concentration, we also need to bear in mind that we are speaking of the people in society who are producing and consuming, investing and saving and individually contribute to the trends which we, as economist, try to measure, understand and predict. Carla Barnett
src/bzst/96/95/1 March 1995 Abortion and Family Life In Belize Gary Chamberlain
src/bzst/96/95/1 March 1995 Historical Narratives and Interpretation of Belizean History The works presented in this paper are of two types. The first is a traditional history, presenting dates and facts in an objective style, and the second is a novel, which relates historical events through the lives and thoughts of fictional characters. In the first type, when the author orders history chronologically, he "creates the illusion of unmediated reality". Sarah Woodbury Haug
src/bzst/96/95/1 March 1995 Modern Myths, Misconceptions and the Maya of Belize Maya of Belize Mark Thompson
src/bzst/97/01/1&2 September 2001 Why the Spanish did not Settle Belize Richard O. Buhler
src/bzst/97/01/1&2 September 2001 Belize and its Neighbours: A Preliminary Report on Colonial Records of the Audiencia of Guatemala Lawrence H. Feldman
src/bzst/97/01/1&2 September 2001 Belize at Two: Keeping its Appointments with History This article attempts to bring together historical date on the Anglo-Guatemalan Dispute and some of the more recent developments in the continuing effort to solve the problem. It is, in short, a collection of items not previously assembled conveniently. The article is divided into a brief treatment of the historical foundations of the dispute, and up-dated on recent efforts to settle the dispute, and a few concluding remarks. James S. Murphy
src/bzst/97/01/1&2 September 2001 The Impact of the Anglo-Guatemalan Dispute on the International Politics of Belize Alma H. & Dennis H. Young
src/bzst/97/01/1&2 September 2001 Cockburn, Miller and the Shift in British Policy in Belize, 1834 - 1835 Karl R. DeRouen
src/bzst/97/01/1&2 September 2001 Post-War Guatemalan Foreign Policy and the Independence of Belize Dean O. Borrow
src/bzst/97/01/1&2 September 2001 Oil in Guatemala: An Economic Factor in the Heads of Agreement. This paper argues that economic development in Guatemala, in particular the exploration and exportation of petroleum, was an important factor which helps to account for the Guatemalan Government’s readiness to negotiate the Heads of Agreement, the attempt made in March of 1981 to resolve the long-standing dispute with Britain over Belize. The following will attempt to gather the evidence for this claim by examining the state of affairs in Northern Guatemala from the late 1970s to the early 1980s, and by showing their connection with the topic which surfaced in the Heads of Agreement, the construction of pipelines from Guatemala through Belize. Herman Byrd
src/bzst/97/01/1&2 September 2001 The Valdez Proposal: A Rebel General's Plan for a German-Guatemalan Invasion of Belize With healthy doses of good fortune, the secret proposal laying before the German Minister to Mexico might reshape the map of Central America. It might also relieve beleaguered German troops on the Western Front. In the desperate summer of 1918, German Minister von Eckhardt had to consider any proposal that could possibly aid the Fatherland’s faltering war effort. Jaime Bisher
src/bzst/97/01/1&2 September 2001 Developments in Guatemala and Belize - Guatemala Relations in the Independence Decade This paper sets out to review developments within Guatemala over the last decade with the aim of providing some informative commentary on developments within Guatemala which could help explain the dramatic turnabout of the entrenched Guatemalan refusal to recognize and independent Belize. Herman J. Byrd
src/bzst/97/01/1&2 September 2001 A Commentary on the Belize-Guatemalan Facilitation Process Alexis Rosado
src/bzst/97/01/1&2 September 2001 Commentary: Where is Belize Heading? Will Belize ever become Part of Guatemala? A Guatemalan Perspective. Leo Obando, M.A.
src/bzst/97/01/1&2 September 2001 A Selected Bibliography of the Guatemalan Claim Charles Gibson, Lawrence Vernon
src/bzst/98/02/1 March 2002 Dangriga’s Two Centuries of Change H. Francis Humphreys
src/bzst/98/02/1 March 2002 Education as if People Matter: A Call for Critical Thinking and Humanistic Education Frank Gomez Jr.
src/bzst/98/02/1 March 2002 Symbols, Values, and Rituals of the Mestizo in Western Belize After a brief review of their history, this paper will highlight some key characteristics of the Mestizo in western Belize. The aim is to deepen appreciation of the Mestizo culture and their contribution to the development of multi-ethnic Belize. David N. Ruiz, Jr.
src/bzst/98/02/1 March 2002 Tribute to: Philip S. W. Goldson: A National Icon Hon. Dean O. Borrow
src/bzst/98/02/1 March 2002 Book Review: Clifford D. Conner, Colonel Despard: The Life and Times of an Anglo-Irish Rebel Lita Hunter-Krohn
src/bzst/99/02/2 September 2002 Culture, Spirituality and Transformation: Undoing the Colonizer within Us In this essay, through the use of social analysis, I hope to: 1) Illustrate how the colonial cultural ethos provided the primary definition of how Belizean people see themselves, 2) examine a broader understanding of the concept of spirituality and how that understanding might help us in undoing the effects of colonization, and 3) lastly, share my vision for a transformed society. My major thesis is that a certain cultural ethos has shaped our way of ‘being’ and ‘becoming’ a people and a key way for transformation and liberation to a new sense of self identity is through deep process of soul searching. Sr. Barbara Ann Flores, SCN
src/bzst/99/02/2 September 2002 Factors Affecting Youth in Belize I will begin by defining what it means to be young in Belize today, then provide some background information on international and national initiatives to improve the opportunities for young people. The heart of my presentation will address the following factors affecting youth in our country today: teenage pregnancy, drug abuse, sexually transmitted diseases, gang/crime, child abuse and neglect, and education. I will conclude with some suggestions on how we may respond to these challenges. Louise Smith
src/bzst/99/02/2 September 2002 “Dollarization!” Michael J. Pisani and David W. Yoskowitz
src/bzst/99/02/2 September 2002 A Tribute to Leo H. Bradley, Sr. Lawrence Vernon
src/bzst/99/02/2 September 2002 Book Review: Donald C. Simmons, Jr. 'Confederate Settlement in British Honduras' Lawrence Vernon
src/bzst/100/03/1 April 2003 A Tribute to Father Charles T. Hunter, S. J.: 1912 - 2002 Zee Edgell
src/bzst/100/03/1 April 2003 Fr. Charles T. Hunter, S. J. - Priest and Scholar Carol Fonseca
src/bzst/100/03/1 April 2003 The Web of Anancy, Super Spiderman (A popular exploratory essay into our past Belizean roots, our emerging cultural identity, and our future national role) Published by Bruckdown No. 17, 1978 and reprinted with permission of the publisher Charles T. Hunter, S. J.
src/bzst/100/03/1 April 2003 Proverbial Wisdom: The Folksy Philosophy of Caribbean Creole Reprinted with permission from Brukdown, No. 19/1980 Charles T. Hunter, S. J.
src/bzst/100/03/1 April 2003 The Purgative Purpose of Protest Poetry: Caribbean Catharsis Reprinted from Bruckdown with permission of publisher Charles T. Hunter, S. J.
src/bzst/100/03/1 April 2003 The Young Belizean Church: A Jesuit Mission Comes of Age Reprinted with permission from The Christian Herald, September 1983 Charles T. Hunter, S. J.
src/bzst/100/03/1 April 2003 Women Working towards Development of Self, Community, and Country Fr. Hunter delivered this address to the National Women’s Convention in Belize City on March 8, 1994. Charles T. Hunter, S. J.
src/bzst/100/03/1 April 2003 Religion and Development Reprinted from the BELCAST Journal of Belizean Affairs, Vol. 1 No. 1 December 1984 Charles T. Hunter, S. J.
src/bzst/100/03/1 April 2003 Vatican II Revisited: A Belizean Response to the Extraordinary Synod of ’85 (From - diocesan priests and pastoral teams of Belize) Fr. Hunter’s report on a meeting of Diocesan priests held on May 22, 1986 Charles T. Hunter, S. J.
src/bzst/100/03/1 April 2003 From Mono-Culture Myopia to Multi-Cultural Vision: The Role of Jesuit Secondary Education in Maintaining Cultural Pluralism in Belize Charles T. Hunter, S. J.
src/bzst/100/03/1 April 2003 Literature: Belize’s First Novel, "Beka Lamb" This review was published in Belizean Studies in 1982 Charles T. Hunter, S. J.
src/bzst/100/03/1 April 2003 Farewell Tio Carlos! Lita Hunter-Krohn
src/bzst/101/03/1 September 2003 Belize and the Plan Puebla-Panama: Prospects and Challenges M. J. Pisani, D. W. Yoskowitz, W. A. Label
src/bzst/101/03/1 September 2003 Educational Excellence: What does it mean to an Educator in Belize? Frank Gomez, Jr.
src/bzst/101/03/1 September 2003 Why are Garifuna Students Underachieving in Primary and Secondary Schools? This is a narrative description of an effort by a group of concerned Garifuna leaders to study the level of achievement of Garifuna students in primary and secondary schools in Southern Belize. It starts with a discussion of how the study originated continues with the implementation and results and finishes with an analysis of the results. Joseph O. Palacio
src/bzst/101/03/1 September 2003 Transnational Environmentalism, Power and Development in Belize Kenneth A. Gould
src/bzst/101/03/1 September 2003 Antibacterial properties of Ethno-botanically important Plants Thippi Thiagarajan and Douglas Aspinal
src/bzst/102/04/1 April 2004 The Social Carrying Capacity of Ecotourists Visiting Cayo District, Belize This research explores relations between ecotourism destinations, primary tourist activities, social carrying capacities, satisfaction levels, and tourist preferences for development of the ecotourism industry, as expressed by ecotourists visiting Cayo District, Belize. Our specific objectives were to: (1) identify tourists’ demographic characteristics, (2) establish density tolerance levels for particular tourist activities, (3) determine current encounter rates during tourists’ main activities, and (4) assess visitor satisfaction levels. Sara E. Alexander, Kristine M. Gentry
src/bzst/102/04/1 April 2004 Language Diversity and the Teaching of Languages to Infants in the Toledo District of Belize. This paper, after briefly reviewing the debate in Belize on first language use for formal education, will present and assess the implications of the findings of the Language Teaching Support research. John Newport
src/bzst/102/04/1 April 2004 Using Literature to Teach Reading, A Model that Works Rosalind Bradley, Denise Robateau
src/bzst/102/04/1 April 2004 Maid in Belize: Employee & Employer Perspective on the Minimum Wage Our paper reports the findings of this national survey and is organized as follows: section two provides and overview of Belize; section three surveys the appropriate literature; section four highlights the methodology employed; section five details the results; and the last section concludes the paper. M. J. Pisani, D. W. Yoskowitz, Roy Young
src/bzst/103/04/2 December 2004 A Preliminary Assessment of the Proposed Belize-Guatemala Free Trade Agreement With an emphasis upon Belize, this paper seeks to explore the prospects of enhanced economic interaction and integration between Belize and Guatemala as possible result of political rapprochement involving the two neighbors. Michael J. Pisani
src/bzst/103/04/2 December 2004 Technology Training in Belize: A Bottom-Up approach to Community Development This research aims to investigate the role of community computer centers in equipping families with technology training in preparation for job opportunities. Unlike other studies, this research attempts to assess the effectiveness of a Bottom-Up approach in transferring technology knowledge from child-to-parent verses parent-to-child. While rural Belizeans struggle fro access to education, few researchers have looked to youth for answers in imparting knowledge gained from training to other family members, ultimately building better communities for all. Kathaleena E. Monds, Cynthia F. Bennett
src/bzst/103/04/2 December 2004 The Tripartite Ecological Park in the Facilitators’ Proposals: Conservation Fostering Peace As in the original presentation, this paper provides and analysis of the proposition to establish a tripartite ecological park as part of a package presented to the Organization of American States in 2002 by facilitators Sony Ramphal and Richard Reichler to provide a definitive solution to the Belize-Guatemala territorial differendum. Although the proposals have been rejected by Guatemala and the proposed referenda never held, this paper contends that the establishment of the park can be one of the definitive mechanisms in future negotiations to settle Guatemala’s claim and it can foster and encourage sustainable development of the people of the nations that use, or in some cases abuse, the resources within the proposed park. Anna Dominguez Hoare
src/bzst/103/04/2 December 2004 Education in Belize: The National Education Summit 2004 and Beyond David Leacock
src/bzst/103/04/2 December 2004 Does anyone in Guatemala really want to bring this thing to an end? James S. Murphy
src/bzst/103/04/2 December 2004 Book Review: 1) Caye to Success: A Biography of Antonio Lorenzo Vega Sr. By: Mati Gomoll (2) The Guatemalan Claim to Belize: A Handbook on the Negotiations By: James S. Murphy Herman Byrd
src/bzst/104/05/1 June 2005 Processes of Differentiation in Belize City: The Construction and Negotiation of Immigrants and Other Strangers This article examines how Creoles in Belize City relate to and differentiate themselves from Central American immigrants and Chinese immigrants in the City. With the continued exodus of Belizeans to the United States and the increase social and cultural North American influence in Belize, there is a growing sense among Creole in Belize City of cultural deterioration and failing local communities. The theoretical argument in this article is based on Thomas Hylland Eriksen’s contention that our object of analysis should be the cultural contexts of interaction when we seek to understand how cultural difference is communicated and negotiated. Flemming Daugaard-Hansen
src/bzst/104/05/1 June 2005 Building Sustainable Livelihoods for the Food Insecure and Nutritionally Vulnerable in Belize The goal of this project is to promote increase food security at the national, community, and household levels through the establishment of holistic, successful and sustainable food security policies, programmes, production, and consumption activities. Joseph O. Palacio
src/bzst/104/05/1 June 2005 Local Interests versus Global Organizational Power Political Conflicts in the Organization of Belizean Football This article is about the political consequences of a conflict between two rival Belizean football organizations. Carel Roessingh and Kees Boersma
src/bzst/104/05/1 June 2005 The 2005 Disturbances: A Journalists’ Timeline from August 1, 2004 to April 6, 2005 Adele Ramos
src/bzst/104/05/1 June 2005 Book Review: Belize: A Concise History By: P. A. B. Thompson Lita H. Krohn
src/bzst/105/05/2 November 2005 Colonialism and Wildlife in Belize Richard Wilk
src/bzst/105/05/2 November 2005 Nature and Culture in Colonial Travel Writing and Ecotourism Discourse Megan Casey
src/bzst/105/05/2 November 2005 The Cockscomb in the Colonial Present Joel Wainwright and Christine Ageton
src/bzst/105/05/2 November 2005 Racing Nature and Naturalizing Race: Rethinking the Nature of Creole and Garifuna Identities In this article, I explore the relationship between colonial racial ideologies and Belize’s natural landscape past and present. The Creole, Garifuna, Maya and Mestizo groups are each associated with different parts of Belize, and with different ways of living in the environment in each of those locations. Melissa A. Johnson
src/bzst/105/05/2 November 2005 Ethical Contexts K. Anne Pyburn
src/bzst/106/06/1 April 2006 General Overview of the National Capacity Self Assessment Project (NCSA) Belize has ratified the tree Rio Conventions, namely the UN Convention on Biological Diversity (UNCBD) on December 30, 1993, the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) on October 31, 1994 and the Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD) on July 23, 1998. Implementation of the respective national commitments and obligations of the three conventions in the country has largely been ad-hoc and uncoordinated resulting in sub-optimal impact. The Ministry of Natural Resources, Local Government and the Environment is responsible for the implementation of these conventions. Anselmo Castañeda
src/bzst/106/06/1 April 2006 Six Hydrologic Indices to Evaluate the State of Aridity in Belize, el Peten, Guatemala and Yucatan. The problem of land degradation is not only a phenomenon of dry land zones, as has been adopted by the UNCCD, but it is also a challenge that must be faced by countries in the dry sub humid tropics, like those in Mesoamerica. Land degradation is the result of interaction among biophysical and socioeconomic factors (Lobo et al, 2004). It is closely related to the over exploration of the soil, natural resources and poverty. Ramon Frutos
src/bzst/106/06/1 April 2006 Human Impact Mapping of the Mopan and Chiquibul rivers within Guatemala and Belize. This study revealed that the upper Mopan River (all reaches above Los Encuentros or the convergence with the Chiquibul River) has been subjected to the greatest amount of stress from sedimentation, nutrient loading, habitat alteration, thermal alteration, toxins/contaminants and trophic alteration than indicated for the Chiquibul River or the lower Mopan River (all reaches below Los Encuentros to the river mouth at its confluence with the Macal River). Jes Karper and Ed Boles
src/bzst/106/06/1 April 2006 Food and the Community: The Role of Sharing a Meal among the Mennonites of Shipyard, Belize. In this article we want to focus on the sharing of food to explain more about the processes of inclusion and exclusion in the process of community forming among the Mennonites of Shipyard and their ideas about purity. Tanja Plasil and Carel Roessingh
src/bzst/106/06/1 April 2006 "Neo-Dependent Commercial Exterior Relations? An Analysis of the Belizean Export Basket Since Independence" This paper seeks to better understand the performance of Belizean exports given the undemocratic nature of the global trading system and the local context in which the exports are produced. Michael J. Pisani
src/bzst/106/06/1 April 2006 Book Review: "Peopling Belize: Chapters in Migration 2006 by St. John Robinson." Lawrence Vernon
src/bzst/107/06/2 November 2006 Feasibility of Plantation Xate in Belize Michael Rea
src/bzst/107/06/2 November 2006 The Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME) Implications for the Education Sector in Belize A Perspective. Presented by Marian McNab, Chief Education Officer, Ministry of Education, on the Occasion of the 16th Signa Yorke memorial Lecture. Marian McNab
src/bzst/107/06/2 November 2006 The Effects of the Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME) on the Productive Sector. "The bulk of the presentation will be on the Revised Treaty of Chaguaramas giving rise to the CSME. The rationale for the CSME is that the free movement of goods, services, capital and skilled people across the region will facilitate a more efficient allocation of resources, easier access to capital, skills and services. My presentation will be divided into four areas, namely: the history, regional trade, the effects of CSME and conclusions." Kevin Hererra
src/bzst/107/06/2 November 2006 The March of History: the Belize-Guatemala Question and the Alternatives before Us. "This paper provides a general discussion, especially for the general reader in Belize, on the Facilitation Process of the Belize-Guatemala territorial differendum, and examines the Facilitators’ proposals for a settlement, their implications (economic, financial and political), and the alternatives before us. This paper casts an eye to the future by examining our options (four in particular) should the proposals be deemed unacceptable by either or both countries. In the process, this paper address the implications of a ‘yes’ vote by Belize, as well as a ‘no’ vote for the proposals by either of the countries. Includes critique of the Ramphal-Reichler Proposals." Frank Gomez Jr.
src/bzst/107/06/2 November 2006 Looking In, Writing Out: Journals as a Tool for Enhancing Critical Thought and Learning in Belizean Schools. Jeanette Winsor
src/bzst/107/06/2 November 2006 Book Review: Peter Hitchen, Education and Multi-Cultural Cohesion in the Caribbean: the Case of Belize, 1931-1981. Grant J. Rich
src/bzst/108/07/1 May 2007 Black Gold, White Gold and Gentrification of Belize Oil is a finite, non-renewable resource that will be depleted in a matter of a few years, while land value is perpetual and perpetually increasing in value. One study indicates that 75% or more of coastal land has been purchased by foreigners, at prices that far exceed what most Belizeans could pay This paper will show evidence of coastal land values using GIS analysis, and a plan to recover land rent following Ricardo's principle of economic rent. Include information on Belize Natural Energy Limited (BNE) Gary Flomenhoft, Marion Cayetano and Colin Young
src/bzst/108/07/1 May 2007 The Belizean View of the Economic Way Forward: Regional versus Global Perspective We understand that physical geography and history are important determinants of foreign economic relations, as Belize is geographically embedded in Central America with a Caribbean history of British colonialism. As such, we seek to shed light on two related research questions one focus on regional economic relations, the other on more Global economic relations based upon Belizean public opinion. The research questions are 1) Do Belizeans perceive their economic destiny to be tied with the Caribbean or Central America? And 2) Which nation/ group of nations are perceived by Belizeans as having the greatest economic influences in Belize? The remainder of the paper is divided as follows: section two reviews the pertinent literature, section three illustrates our survey methodology , section four presents our results with a discussion, and the last section concludes the paper Michael J. Pisani and Jana S. Pisani
src/bzst/108/07/1 May 2007 Development in Belize Escaping the moral Paradox The purpose of this paper is to draw attention to a paradox existing in the field of international development which undercuts the effort of development workers and the impact of their efforts. This essay explores the strategic paradox, the pressures shaping compulsive greed, the understanding effect of greed upon sustainable development, and, the logic and disutility of moral development interventions. It also suggest a counter strategy for escaping from the limitations of moral approaches to development. Michael Rosberg
src/bzst/108/07/1 May 2007 The Utility of Atmospheric Sounding Stability Indices for the Evaluation of Thunderstorm Potential in Belize This research aims at removing some of that subjectivity by injecting a more scientific and empirical method of evaluating thunderstorm potential. The first section covers data sources along with a description of the different stability indices. This is followed by the section dealing with the method used to assign classes of risk/ threat levels to each selected index. The third section comprises the results of performance measures of forecast quality of the combined indices along with a comparison with individual index. Included in this section are selected examples of successes and failures of using a single valued index as compared with a aggregate. The final section involves the summary and discussions along with future avenues for research in severe thunderstorm forecasting in Belize Dennis S. Gonguez
src/bzst/108/07/1 May 2007 Book Review Rene R. Villanueva. Thanks for Choosing Love Lawrence Vernon
src/bzst/109/07/2 December 2007 Step Mountain and the Kingdom of the Avocado: Engineering Marvel and Forgotten Hieroglyphs at Pusilha, Belize Today, Toledo is often called the "Forgotten District" of Belize. But it was not always so. During the Classic Period (A.D. 250-850), Toledo District was home to at least four important Maya kingdoms. Today we call the capitals of these kingdoms Lubaantun, Nim Li Punit, Uxbenka, and Pusilha - by far the largest ancient Maya city in southern Belize - is far less known. Despite these early discoveries, very few archaeologists or travelers have visited Pusilha since 1930's and it has become something of a forgotten gem. Geoffrey E. Braswell
src/bzst/109/07/2 December 2007 Ancient Mariners on the Belizean Coast: Stingrays, Seafood, and Salt In this paper I will summarize my archaeological fieldwork on the coast, cays, and underwater in Belize since 1979, including the trading ports of Moho Caye and Wild Cane Cay, as well as the salt works in Paynes Creek National Park where we found the Maya canoe paddle in 2004 and other exciting discoveries in our underwater archaeological survey. Heather McKillop
src/bzst/109/07/2 December 2007 In search of the first Belizeans: The Paleo - Indian and Hunter Gather of Belize Although Belize is perhaps best known archaeologically for its large Maya cities like Caracol, Lamanai, and Lubaantun, the records of human habitation in the country extends well beyond the origins of ancient Maya civilization. Indeed, long before the establishment of the first Maya settlement two distinct but related cultural groups, the Paleo-Indians and Archaic people, thrived in the area that is today modern Belize. Jaime J. Awe and Jon C. Lohse
src/bzst/109/07/2 December 2007 The earliest Maya of Belize: Terminal Early Formative Settlement in the Belize Valley This article summarizes the important elements of the earliest phases at these two sites (Cunil at Cahal Pech and Kanocha at Blackman Eddy, 1100-900 BC) James F. Garber and Jaime J. Awe
src/bzst/109/07/2 December 2007 Ancient Maya Urban Development: Insights from the Archaeology of Caracol, Belize This paper derives from a body of long- term research data that have been collected in the course of more than 25 years of work at Caracol, Belize that may be used to answer questions concerning the composition, scale, and development of a Classic Maya city ( e.g. D. Chase et al. 1990). These data also suggest that, in spite of differences between modern and past economic system, ancient expressions of modern urban principles are reflected in the use of space at Caracol. Arlen F. Chase and Diane Z. Chase
src/bzst/109/07/2 December 2007 Archaeology and Northern Belize Several northwestern portions of northern Belize have become accessible during the last few decades and had lagged behind other areas in terms of archaeological investigations. The area can be very rugged climb onto the escarpments that define the region. From haystack knolls to very rough escarpment faces, heights in the area reach several hundred meters above sea level. The region has shown to be an area densely populated by the prehistoric Maya, perhaps because of available resources. Although today significant areas are covered by forest, these were likely open regions utilized and exploited by the ancient Mayas. Fred Valdez Jr.
src/bzst/109/07/2 December 2007 Note on Contributors
src/bzst/110/08/1 June 2008 'No Tyrants Here Linger': Understandings of Democracy in Modern Belize This article examines understandings and interpretations of democracy in modern Belize. The article then cautiously assesses the prospects for a future democratic awakening in Belize. Mark Nowottny, M.Sc.
src/bzst/110/08/1 June 2008 Belize: A Haven of Governance. Are we there Yet? ".. .Development for countries like Belize means the alleviation of poverty, the uplifting of the people in many aspects: economically, socially and politically.. ." Crucita Ken
src/bzst/110/08/1 June 2008 The Belize Senate: An Analysis of its Role in Belize's Democracy Godwin Hulse
src/bzst/110/08/1 June 2008 Advocacy and Social Justice in Belize: Some lessons from Political Reform This paper was presented at a public forum entitled "Commitment to Social Justice: The Start of Advocacy" sponsored by the St. John's College School of Professional Studies on September 26, 2007 at the Holy Redeemer Parish Hall, Belize City, Belize. Dylan G. Vernon
src/bzst/110/08/1 June 2008 Indigenous Rights and Governance This paper was presented at a public forum entitled "Commitment to Social Justice: The Start of Advocacy" sponsored by the St. John's College School of Professional Studies on September 26, 2007 at the Holy Redeemer Parish Hall, Belize City, Belize. Gregory Juan Ch'oc
src/bzst/110/08/1 June 2008 Book Review Book Review: Dr. Joseph Palacio (Editor). The Garifuna: A Nation Across Borders: Essays in Social Anthropology David Lacey
src/bzst/110/08/1 June 2008 Book Review Book Review: Dr. Joseph Palacio (Editor). The Garifuna: A Nation Across Borders: Essays in Social Anthropology Allan Flores Sr.
src/bzst/111/08/2 December 2008 Why Have Efforts to Reach A Negotiated Settlement of the Belize-Guatemala Territorial Dispute Failed? Panel Presentation at the 17th Annual Signa L. Yorke Memorial Lecture Holy Redeemer Parsh Hall, April, 2007. James S. Murphy
src/bzst/110/08/2 December 2008 Guatemala's Claim to Belize: The ICJ Imperative "After a long history of failed negotiations, it is generally agreed that it is unlikely that the Belize-Guatemala differendum will be resolved any time soon through further negotiations." Godfrey P. Smith
src/bzst/110/08/2 December 2008 By the Might of Truth: Provocation For Going to the ICJ' "The central goal of Belize's foreign policy today was preordained even before the country's birth into nationhood. That was so because of the Guatemalan claim to Belize inherited from the British upon independence." Lisa Shoman
src/bzst/110/08/2 December 2008 Guatemala's Claim to Belize: A Chronology of Events, 1859-2008 David A. K. Gibson
src/bzst/110/08/2 December 2008 A Tribute: The Honorable Edward A. Laing Jr. Judge Diplomat, Professor, Community Leader
src/bzst/110/08/2 December 2008 A Special Agreement Between Belize and Guatemala to Submit Guatemala's Territorial, Insular and Maritime Claim to the International Court of Justice
src/bzst/110/08/2 December 2008 A Selected Bibliography of the Guatemala Claim Charles Gibson and Lawrence Vernon
src/bzst/111/10/1 March 2010 A Brief History of Trade Union Movement in Belize. Nicholas Pollard Jr.
src/bzst/111/10/1 March 2010 Beka Lamb and The Metonymic Trinity Christopher DeShield
src/bzst/111/10/1 March 2010 The Availability and Desirability of Belizean-Made Products in the Corozal Commercial Free-Zone: An Exploratory Study Desiree E. Casey, Emrece Smith, Rachel Rancharan
src/bzst/111/10/1 March 2010 Imports and Consumer Ethnocentrism in Belize: Competing or Complementary Propositions? Michael J. Pisani, Ph.D.
src/bzst/111/10/1 March 2010 Builder of Belize: Honorable Santiago Ricalde
src/bzst/111/10/1 March 2010 Tribute to Allan Flores